Descriptive Statistics: Raw Data Essay
No Works Cited
Length: 756 words (2.2 doublespaced pages)
Rating: Yellow
Open Document
                                 
Length: 756 words (2.2 doublespaced pages)
Rating: Yellow
Open Document
                                 
Several things can be done to the raw data in order to see what they can say about the hypotheses (Neuman, 2003). An inspection of the raw data can be done by using the descriptive statistics to find obvious coding errors. The minimum and maximum values for each variable must fall within the admissible range. Pairwise correlations depict that all relationships must be in the expected direction. Meanwhile, listwise deletion of missing values indicates that the data can be used for analysis.
An outlier is an observation that is unusually small or large. Outliers assist researchers in detecting coding errors. According to Bagozzi and Baumgartner (1994), outliers are not recommended to be routinely excluded from further analysis. Data collected were analyzed by using three approaches:
1. Cronbach’s alpha (a) was used to test the reliability. Cronbach’s alpha indicates how well the items in a set are positively correlated to one another. This is to make sure that the scales are free of random or unstable errors and produce consistent results over time (Cooper & Schindler, 1998);
2. Descriptive statistics where the researcher used mean, standard deviation and variance to get an idea on how the respondents reacted to the items in the questionnaire. The major concern of descriptive statistics is to present information in a convenient, usable and understandable form (Runyon & Audry, 1980).
Descriptive summary, including frequency and descriptive, was used to screen the data set. Among basic statistics to use were mean, median, mode, sum, variance, range, minimum, maximum, skewness and kurtosis.
3. Inferential statistics concerned with generalizing from a sample to make estimates and inferences about a wider population (Neuman, 2003...
... middle of paper ...
....e. more than 30 (Hair et al., 2006). Sekaran (2003) suggests the approximation to normality of the observed variables could be investigated by inspecting the data through histograms, stemand leaf displays, probit plots and by computing univariate and multivariate measures of skewness and kurtosis. Histograms, stemandleaf and probit plots indicate the symmetric distribution of variables or sets of variables.
Tabachnick and Fidell (1996) suggest the value of skewness and kurtosis is equal to zero if the distribution of a variable is normal. Chou and Bentler (1995) emphases the absolute values of univariate skewness indices greater than 3 can be described as extremely skewed. Meanwhile, a threshold value of kurtosis greater than 10 can be considered problematic and value greater than 20 can be considered as having serious problems (Hoyle, 1995; Kline, 1998).
An outlier is an observation that is unusually small or large. Outliers assist researchers in detecting coding errors. According to Bagozzi and Baumgartner (1994), outliers are not recommended to be routinely excluded from further analysis. Data collected were analyzed by using three approaches:
1. Cronbach’s alpha (a) was used to test the reliability. Cronbach’s alpha indicates how well the items in a set are positively correlated to one another. This is to make sure that the scales are free of random or unstable errors and produce consistent results over time (Cooper & Schindler, 1998);
2. Descriptive statistics where the researcher used mean, standard deviation and variance to get an idea on how the respondents reacted to the items in the questionnaire. The major concern of descriptive statistics is to present information in a convenient, usable and understandable form (Runyon & Audry, 1980).
Descriptive summary, including frequency and descriptive, was used to screen the data set. Among basic statistics to use were mean, median, mode, sum, variance, range, minimum, maximum, skewness and kurtosis.
3. Inferential statistics concerned with generalizing from a sample to make estimates and inferences about a wider population (Neuman, 2003...
... middle of paper ...
....e. more than 30 (Hair et al., 2006). Sekaran (2003) suggests the approximation to normality of the observed variables could be investigated by inspecting the data through histograms, stemand leaf displays, probit plots and by computing univariate and multivariate measures of skewness and kurtosis. Histograms, stemandleaf and probit plots indicate the symmetric distribution of variables or sets of variables.
Tabachnick and Fidell (1996) suggest the value of skewness and kurtosis is equal to zero if the distribution of a variable is normal. Chou and Bentler (1995) emphases the absolute values of univariate skewness indices greater than 3 can be described as extremely skewed. Meanwhile, a threshold value of kurtosis greater than 10 can be considered problematic and value greater than 20 can be considered as having serious problems (Hoyle, 1995; Kline, 1998).
Click the button above to view the complete essay, speech, term paper, or research paper

Title  Length  Color Rating  

Essay about Statistic: Data Collection and Sampling
 Sampling is the raw resource which enables the quantitative researcher gain insight on the target population. In the past halfcentury, Haer & Becher (2012) note that surveys have become the ubiquitous data gathering devices serving many researchers purposes for assembling data in person or by mail. Nevertheless, the purpose of the survey is designed to gather valuable data, however, even more important is the design and in the way it is conducted ethically. Sampling strategies can be diverse depending on the resources and time available to a researcher.... [tags: target population, statistics]
:: 12 Works Cited 
1261 words (3.6 pages) 
Powerful Essays  [preview] 
Statistics Essay  Statistics are necessary for scientific research because they allow the researchers to analyze empirical data needed to interpret the findings and draw conclusions based on the results of the research. According to Portney and Watkins (2009), all studies require a description of subjects and responses that are obtained through measuring central tendency, so all studies use descriptive statistics to present an appropriate use of statistical tests and the validity of data interpretation. Although descriptive statistics do not allow general conclusions and allow only limited interpretations, they are useful for understanding the study sample and establishing an appropriate framework for the fur... [tags: Data Analysis, Frequency Distribution]  1090 words (3.1 pages) 
Good Essays  [preview] 
Essay on Quantitative Data Anaylsis Using the IBM SPSS Statistics Software  ... b. Only a partial list of cases with the value 17 are shown in the table of lower extremes. c. Only a partial list of cases with the value 5.00 are shown in the table of upper extremes. (2d) Illustration of the five chosen variables (After screening and cleaning) Demonstrate the illustration of Type of Work, Age of Participants, and Gender variables by the bar chart. It reveals that the average age of male in both type of work design (PBS v. QRM) are very similar. In contrast, the mean age of females that participate in work is smaller than that of male.... [tags: setup, describe, date, steps, manipilate]  3081 words (8.8 pages) 
Better Essays  [preview] 
Statistics in Healthcare Administration Essay
 In the health care industry, gathering information in order to find the best diagnosis route or even determine patient satisfaction is necessary. This is complete by conducting a survey and collecting data. When the information is complete, we then have statistical information used to make administrative decision within the healthcare field. The collection of meaningful statistics is an important function of any hospital or clinic. “Quantitative research guides health care decision makers with statisticsnumerical data collected from measurements or observation that describe the characteristics of specific population samples.... [tags: Healthcare Administration Essays]
:: 4 Works Cited 
936 words (2.7 pages) 
Strong Essays  [preview] 
What are Descriptive Statistics? Essay
 ... The software that researchers use is often very expensive and has a steep learning curve. But, you don’t have to be a statistician or mathematical genius to use data. Descriptive statistics do not require one to have the statistical software or the statistical knowledge to describe the basic features of the data, but more often than not, descriptive statistics can be very powerful and persuasive when used appropriately. Defenders can use descriptive statistics to present quantitative descriptions of the data in a manageable form and it helps defenders to simplify large amounts of data numerically and/or graphically.... [tags: data, inferencial statistics]
:: 1 Works Cited 
1943 words (5.6 pages) 
Powerful Essays  [preview] 
Essay on Statistical Methods in Quality Management: Descriptive Statistics
 Quality management frequently uses statistical methods to identify the existence of a quality problem and to analyze the root cause of the problem. Statistical methods require the collection of numerical data related to a process under investigation. The data can then be used to identify trends that can affect quality such as the rate of variance in the outcomes of a production process. The descriptive or inferential analysis of the statistical methods can also provide information about the most likely causes of the problem.... [tags: histogram, inferencial statistics, data]
:: 5 Works Cited 
902 words (2.6 pages) 
Better Essays  [preview] 
Descriptive or Expressive Statistics Essay
 Statistics We define statistics as a branch of mathematics as a means to analyze, understand what we observe and explain synopses, so as to create sense and meaning of our explanations and observations. Each day in life we come across information that originates in various forms. This is to means in order to put sense in this information; there is the necessity to use statistics. Though, due to its empirical applications and focus, statistics is typically regarded as a distinctive math’s sciences and not only a math’s branch (Chance et al, 2005) Therefore, in certain tasks a statistician use is less mathematical; for example, ensuring that collection of data is carried out in a way that yie... [tags: numerical summaries, inferencial statistics]
:: 4 Works Cited 
997 words (2.8 pages) 
Better Essays  [preview] 
Converting Raw Medical Data Into Informative Data Through DataMining Tools
 ... Methodology: The proposed approach uses ‘Process Mining’ technique, which aims at extracting useful information from health care data or event logs. This Technique will also help organizations to improve their services, manage the data properly and control their processes [4]. The Importance of process mining has proved itself in the field of health care domain in following literature [56]. The proposed approach will adopt itemsettree (An itemset is set of reoccurring items) method to get frequent surgical specimen [7].... [tags: statistics, laboratory, evaluation]
:: 7 Works Cited 
532 words (1.5 pages) 
Strong Essays  [preview] 
Essay on Quantitative and Quality Research  Research roughly divides into two kinds: qualitative research and quantitative research. Quantitative and qualitative data are the two huge types of statistical data.We can make use of choosing both methods one after another, economic or time moderation may not accept us to opt for both. In such situation, comparison between the both can help in making choice. Qualitative Research: It is about exploring questions or problems, gathering some information and recognising the phenomena.This type of research most often used in major fields like humanities , sociology and anthropology, each of these fields studied by qualitative research as well.Collection of data and analysing it in a proper way... [tags: Data, Analysis, Hypothesis]  815 words (2.3 pages) 
Better Essays  [preview] 
Essay about The Essentials of Studying Statistics  The Essentials of Studying Statistics Introduction Making effective business decisions are always based on cost, time and prospect. Calculating money cost, time cost and forecast of return, all are based on marketing research, data mining, information analysis and findings. The way of the finding the answer is statistics. Statistics – The Method of Organizing Data Broadly, statistics is a set of disciplines for study quantitative information. Implied that several methods used to collect or process or interpret quantitative data from large amount of information, then finally generate a calculated number, for example average, mean, standard deviation…etc.... [tags: Statistics]  1242 words (3.5 pages) 
Strong Essays  [preview] 