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Psychological and Ethical Egoism - Egoism is a teleological theory of ethics that sets the ultimate criterion of morality in some nonmoral value (i.e. happiness or welfare) that results from acts (Pojman 276). It is contrasted with altruism, which is the view that one's actions ought to further the interests or good of other people, ideally to the exclusion of one's own interests (Pojman 272). This essay will explain the relation between psychological egoism and ethical egoism. It will examine how someone who believes in psychological egoism explains the apparent instances of altruism....   [tags: Ethics Psychological Egoism]
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1876 words
(5.4 pages)
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Psychological Egoism - Psychological Egoism Psychological egoism is a reflex that every person has to orient themselves toward their own welfare. Through this, it follows that every one of his (or her) voluntary actions is some good to himself. If someone gives away the last piece of bread to someone else, it is because they want to look like a better person. Due to the fact that they would give away the last piece of bread. Human nature is completely and exclusively egoistic. People are entirely selfish and devoid of any genuine feelings of sympathy, benevolence, or sociability....   [tags: Psychology Selfishness Selfish Egoism essays] 1976 words
(5.6 pages)
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Altruism and Egoism - In popular culture, an altruistic person is connoted with being a genuine individual that plays as a role model for others, but an egotistic person is synonymous with an evil beast that squashes over anything to attain his own end. However, the views of Ayn Rand heavily collide with these mainstream perceptions of Altruism and Egoism. Rand believes that the basic principle of altruism "is that man has no right to exist for his own sake, his service to others is the only justification of his existence, and that self-sacrifice is his highest moral duty, virtue and value."(1) Thus, she conceptualizes altruism as an ethical dilemma for the person whom sacrifice is demanded....   [tags: Literature] 1131 words
(3.2 pages)
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Ethical Egoism: The Nature Philosophy - ... We of course can further our interests by being kind to others, because they will be more likely to do the same out of love, unless of course it is not in their interest. However, being cruel and feared is better and a more sure way to maintain our power, influence, and position, because fear is a sturdier motivator than love. Machiavelli explains our choice between the two in The Prince, “Here a question arises: whether it is better to be loved than feared, or the reverse. The answer is, of course, that it would be best to be both loved and feared....   [tags: goals, wants, desires, personal] 2942 words
(8.4 pages)
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Torchwood, Egoism, and Utilitarianism - Torchwood’s third season “Children of Earth,” contains many momentous events which question human rationality, having good sagacity, judgment, and equanimity. Throughout these events two ethical philosophies unravel. The first philosophy, egoism, actions with solely one’s interests in mind, plays a major role in the season. Ethical egoists believe that one should look out for no one else but themselves, and a theory of psychological egoism states that whatever the reasoning is behind an action, the action is always an individual’s self-interest....   [tags: Literary Analysis]
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2066 words
(5.9 pages)
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Ethical Egoism - “People act for many reasons; but for whom, or what, do or should they act—for themselves, for God, or for the good of the planet?” (Moseley) An egoist would argue that one acts for one’s own self. More specifically, an ethical egoist is one who thrives to improve ones own self being, with much respect to morality. Ethical Egoism is the theory that one should pursue his or her own interest above all the rest. It is the idea that all persons should act from their own self interest in relation to morality....   [tags: Philosophy ]
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1545 words
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Psychological Egoism - Psychological Egoism is a claim that one’s own welfare is the governing aim that guides us in every action. This would mean that every action and decisions humans make come with an intention for self-benefit, and personal gain. The fundamental idea behind psychological egoism is that our self-interest is the one motive that governs human beings. This idea may be so deep within our morals and thought process that although one may not think selfishly, the intention of their action is representing to a degree of personal gains....   [tags: Reciprocal Altruism, Natural Selection]
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1383 words
(4 pages)
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Psychological Egoism Theory - The theory of psychological egoism is indeed plausible. The meaning of plausible in the context of this paper refers to the validity or the conceivability of the theory in question, to explain the nature and motivation of human behavior (Hinman, 2007). Human actions are motivated by the satisfaction obtained after completing a task that they are involved in. For example, Mother Teresa was satisfied by her benevolent actions and activities that she spent her life doing. As Hinman (2007) points out, she was likely to reduce in activity if she experienced any dissatisfaction in her endeavors....   [tags: Psychology ]
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2106 words
(6 pages)
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The Ethical Egoist in Plato's Republic - The ethical egoist is one who believes that it is morally right to act strictly in one's own self-interest. Understandably, this belief poses a threat to social cooperation and, therefore, clearly introduces a significant political problem. I believe that the best example of ethical egoism is displayed in Book I of Plato's The Republic. In this Book, Plato introduces the idea of ethical egoism, explains the political problem posed by it, and addresses the problem through the words of Socrates. I will use this paper to explain and clarify the arguments for and against the concept of ethical egoism, with specific focus on the political problem it poses and the proper approach to addressing th...   [tags: politics, ethical egoism, socrates]
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984 words
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Ethical Egoism: The Problem with Ayn Rand - Ayn Rand’s controversial views and opinions on ethical egoism have paved the way in liberating and absolving society’s conservative elite from feeling guilt or compassion towards those who are less fortunate in society - including those from the middle-class, the working poor and minorities. Though Rand penned her theory decades ago, her brand of ethical egoism is still touted as gospel by some politicians and those in the upper echelons of society, creating gridlock in the government and a deep division among the classes....   [tags: Ayn Rand, Author, Literary Analysis]
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1931 words
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Business and Society: Principle of Rational Egoism - The economic catastrophe of the 1930s radically changed society’s view of free markets. Social concern triggered government intervention aimed at solving the demoralizing problems of the Depression. These services (e.g., education, health care, transportation, environmental protection) when well designed and efficiently delivered can be of great benefit to society as a whole. Although government has stepped in and played a part in developing social insurance and assistance systems to reduce future risk since the early twentieth century, it has been done alongside the growth of corporate capitalism....   [tags: free markets, government intervention] 575 words
(1.6 pages)
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Ethical Theories: Egoistic Theories and Psychological Egoism - What I want to do in this paper is to present the 3 different egoistic theories, explain them in brief , and then focus on psychological egoism, presenting its argument, responding to the different criticisms and see in the end if its thesis begs the question or not. The human actions and motivations have been an issue which philosophers argued on. Several ethical theories were proposed in order to justify or explain the human actions. We can justify the human actions by claiming normativity “what one ought to do” and I can explain by claiming descriptive ethics “what one does do”....   [tags: morality, human motivation, altruism]
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1857 words
(5.3 pages)
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Psychological Egoism in Plato's Republic and Other Literature - In Plato’s Republic and in Rachels' Egoism and Moral Scepticism, the authors attempt to combat psychological egoism, which is the ethical theory which asserts that all human motivation is ultimately self-interested. Each author rejects the possibility of this being a valid conclusion of philosophical ethics, and each instead offers an alternate solution to the origin of human motivation. Whether we are capable of acting out of non self-interested ways directly affects the implementation of ethics around the world....   [tags: moral scepticism, human motivation]
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1546 words
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The Formation of Jeremy Bentham’s Universal Egoism - Jeremy Bentham was a British political reformist and philosopher. Bentham is best known for his moral philosophy and philosophy of law. While Bentham’s work was not heavily influential during his lifetime most historians agree his works published posthumously had a huge impact on western philosophy and law. Bentham lived from 1748 to 1832 and lived primarily on his wealthy fathers inheritance allowing him to focus on writing. Most of Bentham’s work was philosophy of law - his most famous work being An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation which focuses primarily on moral philosophy....   [tags: biography, british reformist]
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1009 words
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Male Egoism in Prometheus and Frankenstein - Male Egoism in Prometheus and Frankenstein According to the Greek poet Hesiod, the Titan demi-god Prometheus was responsible for the creation of men. He manufactured them from clay, from the natural earth. When Mary Shelley wrote Frankenstein or the Modern Prometheus, she left little doubt that the creator of the monster, Victor Frankenstein, by making a living creature from inaminate parts was a new Prometheus. But her metaphor extends beyond the immediately obvious. In Hesiod’s myth, Prometheus had an inflated sense of self importance and was determined to be adored by men....   [tags: Papers] 2407 words
(6.9 pages)
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Independence, Egoism, and Achievement in The Fountainhead - Independence, Egoism, and Achievement in The Fountainhead       Ayn Rand said that the theme of The Fountainhead is "individualism versus collectivism, not in politics, but in man's soul." I want to comment on three specific aspects of this theme, as it is embodied in Roark's character and his interactions with the other figures in the novel. Roark is a man of independence, he is an egoist, and he is a creator, a paragon of productive achievement. These three concepts—independence, egoism, and achievement—are the key to understanding the moral sense of The Fountainhead and the ways in which it differs from the conventional ethos....   [tags: Ayn Rand Fountainhead Essays]
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965 words
(2.8 pages)
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Egoism - Egoism There is no word more generally misinterpreted than the word egoism, in its modern sense. In the first place, it is supposed to mean devotion to self interest, without regard to the interest of others. It is thus opposed to altruism - devotion to others and sacrifice of self. This interpretation is due to the use of the word thus antithetically by Herbert Spencer. Again, it is identified with hedonism or eudaimonism, or epicureanism, philosophies that teach that the attainment of pleasure or happiness or advantage, whichever you may choose to phrase it, is the rule of life....   [tags: Papers] 1148 words
(3.3 pages)
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Egoism in Crime and Punishment - Egoism in Crime and Punishment An egocentric attitude can be seen in Fyodor Dostoyevsky's Crime and Punishment. Dostoyevsky's young Raskolnikov is staggeringly arrogant. Raskolnikov commits a murder and a failed robbery in the story. His journey in overcoming his ego can be seen through his initial crime, denial of failure, and acceptance of mistakes. Raskolnikov commits his initial crime out of arrogance. "The old hag is nothing.... I killed not a human being," he says. (245) Raskolnikov feels that he has justification for killing the pawn broker....   [tags: Crime Punishment Essays] 423 words
(1.2 pages)
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Distributive Justice: Inequality in Virtue Ethics and Ethical Egoism - Inequality in Virtue Ethics and Ethical Egoism Distributive justice attempts to limit economic inequalities that may arise in a society and is often associated with a minimum standard of living. While political equality concerns a citizen's political power, economic equality is commonly equated to equal opportunity, though the two are not mutually exclusive (Justice and Equality). In this paper I will explore the virtues of charity, tolerance, and empathy, considering their potential contribution to the reduction of inequality....   [tags: ariostotle, locke, and rousseau]
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1885 words
(5.4 pages)
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Psychological Egoism (Philosophy Paper) - Psychological Egoism (Philosophy Paper) Psychological egoism is the view that people are always selfish. When was the last time you did a good deed. Did you do it for its own sake, or for your own. The egoist says that all of us are necessarily self-regarding. I shall argue that this view is incorrect. First we should ask, what kind of claim is this. Is it an a priori claim, or a generalization from experience. If it were the latter, we could never conclusively prove it: we could never show that necessarily all actions are selfish....   [tags: miscellaneous]
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621 words
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Psychological Egoism - Psychological Egoism      The descriptive claim made by Psychological Egoists is that humans, by nature, are motivated only by self-interest. Any act, no matter how altruistic it may seem on the outside is actually only a disguise for a selfish desire such as recognition, avoiding guilt, reward or sense of personal ‘goodness’ or morality. For example, Mother Teresa is just using the poor for her own long-term spiritual gain. Being a universal claim, it could falter with a single counterexample....   [tags: Psychology Psychological Essays] 490 words
(1.4 pages)
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Psychological and Ethical Egoism, Mill vs Kant, and Ethical Relativism - ... For example, if Jack wants to steal something to benefit himself, he should do so because it is the right thing for him to do. The main argument against psychological egoism is that people do in fact act to fulfill other’s desires. For example, Jack was playing video games and his mother asked him to help her with the dishes and he does so. He is doing this not to fulfill his desires, but to fulfill hers; he was already sitting down doing something that fulfilled his desires at the time but chose to help his mom....   [tags: philosophy exam] 910 words
(2.6 pages)
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Egoism Vs. Altruism: Universal Human Traits in Eliot and Kafka - The author Dr. Irwin Edman opens his 1920 book Human Traits and Their Significance by noting that throughout civilization “two factors have remained constant” (ix). One of these factors is “the physical order of the universe”—or Nature—and the other is “the native biological equipment of man”—or human nature (ix). Together these two ideals have formed modern civilization—as Dr. Edman puts it “there is nothing new under the sun. Matter and men remain the same” (ix). Since the beginning of time there have been essential human traits—inborn distinguishing qualities--common to every society and time period....   [tags: Literary Analysis ]
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1196 words
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The Moral of the Story in Friends Episode - In chapter four of the textbook titled The Moral of the Story we are encountered with theories of human nature, as well as a brief overview of an episode of Friends which deals with the complexity of the term psychological egoism. The issue in this episode is whether or not Joey can be proved wrong by Phoebe that all acts of kindness are not done to achieve personal gain, but rather that an act of kindness can be done simply to help another person while expecting nothing in return. Personally, I believe the theory to be fixed since there is a list of flaws that don’t allow this concept to stand alone on its own two feet....   [tags: egoism, human nature, friends] 1256 words
(3.6 pages)
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Altruism: The Illusion of Self-Interest - The behavior of altruism in an individual is when it brings more costs than benefits for the benefit of another individual. Altruism comes from the Latin word "Alter" which means "the others." This translation of alturism describes it relatively well. Another great definition of altruism can be found in a statement of Edward Osborne Wilson, an American biologist. According to Wilson, "Altruism is defined in biology, as in everyday life, as a self-destructive behavior for the benefit of other." (Recent Work on Human Altruism and Evolution) Another popularized theory by Richard Dawkins states that an individual who behaves more altruistic towards others who share its genes will tend to reprod...   [tags: psychology, egoism, altruistic] 1154 words
(3.3 pages)
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Crime and Punishment: Rodion Romanovich Raskolnikov - Throughout the novel of Crime and Punishment, and any work of fiction at that, the characters exhibit specific personality traits that dictate their make-ups, social interactions and behaviors. These characterizations control the overall development of the story. Characters’ personalities play a vital role in analyzing and understanding character development as well as underlying themes, especially in the novel at hand. Specifically, the central character Rodion Romanovich Raskolnikov illustrates the conflict between good and evil in one’s personality....   [tags: conflict, egoism and self-absorption]
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1325 words
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Views of American Culture - “Failure is not a single, cataclysmic event. You don't fail overnight. Instead, failure is a few errors in judgement, repeated every day” (Rohn1). Viewing pop culture it is common to see people who are being judged. These people are judged and put down in harsh ways, most frequently these stars are doing simple things that the average person would do.Is it so abnormal for a young woman in her twenties to drink. The legal drinking age is twenty-one. Is it so bad that people lose control of things occasionally under stress....   [tags: pop culture, egoism, relativism]
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1650 words
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Analysis of Altruism And Egoism in Ayn Rand's The Fountainhead - The ultimate motive of both the altruist and egoist is personal gain. Separating the two ideologies is the method by which this is accomplished. For the altruist, addressing the needs of humanity is purportedly the sole purpose of existence. Egoists, on the other hand, refuse to act if an action does not directly benefit themselves. In The Fountainhead, Ayn Rand addresses the function of altruists and egoists within society through character development. There are four characters in particular who distinctly exhibit the attributes of altruistic and egoistic individuals: Catherine Halsey, Peter Keating, and Ellsworth Toohey possess altruistic qualities; whereas, Howard Roark is explicitly ego...   [tags: Character Symbolism, Abuse of Power]
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1308 words
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Information Systems and Unemployment - Should companies be responsible for unemployment caused by their information system. This argument had risen over the years among employer and employees. Hence several ethical point of view had been brought up to response to this issue where from ethical egoism point of view believes that companies should not be responsible for unemployment as with information system implemented they are able to benefit from a long term profit therefore this is a morally right action. On the other hand, act utilitarianism believes that an action is wrong to the extent that it decreases the total happiness of the affected parties and in this case it will causes a lot of upsets towards the employees and theref...   [tags: Ethical Egoism, Employer, Employees]
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1328 words
(3.8 pages)
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Keeping Abortion Legal - Keeping Abortion Legal In America we have always preached the act of freedom of speech, and free will but yet we still feel it’s necessary to tell a women when and how to have a baby. Having a baby should always be the woman’s choice. No man no woman should have the right to step in and make that decision for her. How can someone who knows nothing of your past or present struggles tell you, you have no choice but to have this baby why, because abortion is now illegal, how would you feel. Abortion is the act of terminating a fetus within your first 28 weeks of pregnancy....   [tags: Ethical Theory, Egoism]
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1528 words
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The De-Humanization of America - In order to understand the writings of Ayn Rand and her belief in ethical egoism, I believe it is imperative we also understand her background and the era in which she was raised. Born in St. Petersburg, Russia on February 2, 1905, Rand witnessed the Kerensky Revolution which she supported and the Bolshevik Revolution which she denounced. She changed her name from Alissa Rosenbaum to Ayn Rand in 1926 – around this time, she also abandoned her Jewish religion and became an atheist. Her family fled Russia to escape the violence and her father’s business was confiscated....   [tags: selfishness, ayn rand, ethical egoism]
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1871 words
(5.3 pages)
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Peace on the Streets: Analysis of Altruism and Egoism in Ayn Rand's The Fountainhead - The ultimate motive of both the altruist and egoist is personal gain. Separating the two ideologies is the method by which this is accomplished. For the altruist, addressing the needs of humanity is purportedly the sole purpose of existence. Egoists, on the other hand, refuse to act if an action does not directly benefit themselves. In The Fountainhead, Ayn Rand addresses the function of altruists and egoists within society through character development. There are four characters in particular who distinctly exhibit the attributes of altruistic and egoistic individuals: Catherine Halsey, Peter Keating, and Ellsworth Toohey possess altruistic qualities; whereas, Howard Roark is explicitly eg...   [tags: Personal Gain, Character Development] 1331 words
(3.8 pages)
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Personal Identity by Derek Parfit - In his 1971 paper “Personal Identity”, Derek Parfit posits that it is possible and indeed desirable to free important questions from presuppositions about personal identity without losing all that matters. In working out how to do so, Parfit comes to the conclusion that “the question about identity has no importance” (Parfit, 1971, p. 4.2:3). In this essay, I will attempt to show that Parfit’s thesis is a valid one, with positive implications for human behaviour. The first section of the essay will examine the thesis in further detail and the second will assess how Parfit’s claims fare in the face of criticism....   [tags: behaviors, fission, egoism] 1917 words
(5.5 pages)
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The Influence of Manipulation - Control is the name, and manipulation is the game. As human beings, our very nature is egotistic, prioritizing our own wants and needs before all else. We discover ways to compel others into helping us fulfill our desires. As if life is just a show and we are the puppet master, pulling all the strings to run the show; using everybody we meet as a marionette in order to reach the greatest goal of benefitting ourselves. Manipulation can be used as a tool to influence the thoughts, feelings, and actions of an individual....   [tags: control, egoism, dystopian society, insanity]
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1384 words
(4 pages)
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Egoist and Utilitarian Responses to Terrorism - Terrorism was not a dormant issue in the media until the attacks on the USA. The organised use of violence to target non-combatants for political purposes, is one of the most effective ways to gain media attention. Mainly used by extremist groups in the hopes of gaining recognition for their religious or political cause. Several attacks on the US have recently made headlines The attack on the USS Cole (October 12, 2000), US Embassy bombings in Kenya + Tanzania (August 7, 1998), Oklahoma City bombing (April 19, 1995) , the World Trade Centre bombing on February 27 1993 and finally the World Trade Centre bombing on September 11, 2001....   [tags: Egoist, Utilitarian ]
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848 words
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Altruism and Egotism Portrayed in Ayn Rand's The Fountainhead - In the world today, altruism is associated with the “common good” of man while egotism is associated with evil and non-consideration of the fellow man. In contrast to the world’s view, Ayn Rand provides and proves a new definition for egotism through her book, The Fountainhead. She defines egotism in the context of ethics. She states: “Man-every man-is an end in himself, not a means to the ends of others; he must live for his own sake, neither sacrificing himself to others nor sacrificing others to himself; he must work for his rational self-interest, with the achievement of his own happiness as the highest moral purpose of his life.” Howard Roark, the protagonist in the book is a selfish a...   [tags: Literary Analysis, Analytical Essay] 1990 words
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The Egoist - The Egoist George Meredith's The Egoist: A Literary and Critical History George Meredith was an English author, critic, poet, and war correspondent. He was considered to be a successful writer. He published several works of fiction and poetry. These works included: The Ordeal of Richard Feverel, The Tragic Comedians, Modern Love Poems of the English Roadside, and Poems and Lyrics of the Joy of Earth among many others. Toward the end of his career, after the tragic deaths of his wife and son, Meredith received the Order of Merit....   [tags: Free Essays Online]
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1385 words
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Implicit Egotism - Implicit egotism is a tendency for people to be attracted to places, things, and other people that are like them. This tendency is caused by unconscious associations between the self and an object, person, or place (Pelham, Carvallo, & Jones, 2005). Previous studies done by Kocan et.al (2009) and Pelham et.al (2003) validate the concept of implicit egotism and rule out any alternate explanation for its effects. A study done by Jones et al. (2002) distinguishes implicit egotism from other similar concepts such as the mere exposure effect....   [tags: Business Management ] 3254 words
(9.3 pages)
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Defending Egotism and Individualism in The Fountainhead - Defending Egotism and Individualism in The Fountainhead        "The structures were austere and simple, until one looked at them and realized what work, what complexity of method, what tension of thought had achieved the simplicity. No laws had dictated a single detail. The buildings were not Classical, they were not Gothic, they were not Renaissance. They were only Howard Roark." This dialogue in the powerful book The Fountainhead by Ayn Rand, set in the early 1920's in the city of skyscrapers, New York, describes the unique building style of the architect, Howard Roark which parallels his uncompromising and individualistic personality....   [tags: Fountainhead]
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2166 words
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Egotism and Love in Shakespeare's Sonnet 42 - Egotism and Love in Shakespeare's Sonnet 42      William Shakespeare's sonnets deal with two very distinct individuals: the blond young man and the mysterious dark-haired woman. The young man is the focus of the earlier numbered sonnets while the latter ones deal primarily with the dark-haired woman. The character of the young man and a seductive mistress are brought together under passionate circumstances in Shakespeare's "Sonnet 42." The sexual prowess of the mistress entangles both Shakespeare and the young man in her web of flesh....   [tags: Sonnet essays]
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1250 words
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Alexander Hamilton´s Views on Government - ... He was native to the Caribbean Island of Nevis on July 11, 1755 or 1757. Evidence from his American life points towards the date being 1755, but it is also thought because he tended to give his age in rounded numbers that he could have also been born in 1757. He was an illegitimate child born into a difficult childhood; by the time he was thirteen his father had left his mother and his mother had died. A family friend bought as much of the estate as possible to give to Hamilton, because he had no birth right, as he was born out of wedlock....   [tags: federalist, constitution, egotism, determination] 555 words
(1.6 pages)
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The Tremendous Impact of Egotism, Self-Rationalization, and Societal Expectations on the Construction of the Self and a Tragic Destiny - Identity is a multidimensional notion; it is the product of a person’s struggle to conform to the expectations of society. The subconscious struggle to become the ideal “self” is entangled with misconceptions of personal abilities that can result in self-glorification and unrealistic delusions. According to Sigmund Freud—the father of psychoanalysis—narcissism is defined as the “state of being the center of a loving world in which the individual could act spontaneously and purely out of desire” (Brown 643)....   [tags: identity is a multidimensional notion, philosophy] 1978 words
(5.7 pages)
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The Role of Egotism in the Demise of Humanity - When given the opportunity to gain dominance over humans, man thirsts for everlasting power. Argentine writer Julio Cortazar argues that “Human history is the sad result of each one looking out for himself” (Blair). Mere desire can easily be twisted into a dangerous obsession due to the egotistic human tendency to never be fully satisfied. For example, the slaughter of the Jews under Adolf Hitler, which is considered one of the most apocalyptic chapters of history, resulted out of Hitler’s necessity for sovereignty over others....   [tags: Literature] 1755 words
(5 pages)
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A Discussion to Compare Moral Theories - ... For the ethical relativist, there are no universal moral standards -- standards that can be applied to all peoples at all times. Culture and personal morals cause a person to make certain moral decisions. Personally, my beliefs align with ethical relativism, as I do not believe that all morality adhere to universal laws or the fear of a spiritual deity. I feel that the way we treat each other as human beings, the lessons taught by my culture and my own internal feelings of right and wrong guide me....   [tags: ethical, abolutism, relativism]
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707 words
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The Social Causes of Suicide and Durkheim's Theory - Durkheim was a functionalist, and theorised that a holistic social narrative could be identified which would explain individual behaviour. He argued that, whilst society was made up of its members, it was greater than the sum of its parts, and was an external pressure that determined the behaviour of the individuals within it. At that time, suicide rates in Europe were rising, and so the causes of suicide were on the agenda. Since suicide is seen as an intrinsically personal and individual action, establishing it as having societal causes would be a strong defence for Durkheim’s functionalist perspective....   [tags: Sociology, Suicide, Durkheim, ] 1907 words
(5.4 pages)
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The Removal of Eudemonism from Ethics - Although Arthur Schopenhauer was never able to gain the acclaim during his lifetime of some of the rival post-Kantian philosophers he competed against despite going so far as to schedule lectures at the same time as Hegel, he is now creating more buzz than ever and is widely considered one of the most important German philosophers, as he has earned himself the nickname of “the philosopher of pessimism”.1 Most believe that he was a man before his time, as he wrote during the German classical period where Idealism was the main school of thought....   [tags: On the Basis of Morality]
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1937 words
(5.5 pages)
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Moral Philosophies - Ethical dilemmas challenge business because there are different moral philosophies held by each individual and subjective to each situation. Companies have different moral philosophies that shape the ethical climate. Two moral philosophies that effect how a company handles ethics are Utilitarianism and Ethical Egoism. “The utilitarian seeks the greatest good for the greatest number of people” while doing the least harm (Ferrell, Fraedrich, & Ferrell, 2011, p. 156). Ethical Egoism states that consequences are only relevant to the individual and, “each person ought to pursue his or her own self-interest exclusively” (Rachels & Rachels, 2010, p....   [tags: Ethics ]
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1109 words
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Ethical issues of the Phrase, "Do Good to Those Who do Good to You, and Harm to Those Who Harm You" - "Do good to those who do good to you, and harm to those who harm you." This essay will be an exploration of the ethical viability of this statement through the evaluation of several ethical ideas and theories. Primarily, the statement suggests a necessity of the two separate points made within it: To do good to those who do good to you, but in doing so you must harm those who harm you. If you decide to act upon one half of this statement, then it seems not only logical but almost necessary and just to act upon the other half....   [tags: Philosophy] 866 words
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Pete Rose Baseball Scandal - Throughout the history of America’s pastime, baseball has continually battled scandals and controversies. From the 1919 “Black Sox” scandal to the current steroid debate, baseball has lived in a century of turmoil. While many of these scandals affected multiple players and brought shame to teams, none have affected a single player more than the 1980’s Pete Rose betting scandal. Aside from the public humiliation he brought his family and the Cincinnati Reds, nothing has done more to hurt Pete Rose than his lifetime ban from baseball making him ineligible for hall of fame....   [tags: Professional Sports] 1592 words
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Psychological and Ethical Egoists in the Film, Crimes and Misdemeanors - ... A mother does not take care and nurture their child because they want to be a good mother. They do so because they care about the life of their baby. Even a psychological egoist could say they gain satisfaction from their actions, that satisfactions is not the motivation behind their actions, thus proving a psychological view to not be correct in all situations. An ethical egoists holds a similar view that we ought to act in only self-interest. That it is always moral to act in your own self- interest....   [tags: selfish, moral, punish]
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The Illusion of Love in Faulkner’s A Rose for Emily - William Faulkner’s “A Rose for Emily” takes the setting of an old shabby house, in which Emily poisons her lover to death. Though some people suggest the house should be a symbol for isolation, I believe the house, like the rose, is the emblem of love. Both of the two symbols are meant to be of promising connotation, but egoism takes happiness away from love. House is commonly referred to as another word for warm home and love. Since the house Emily lives in is the only property her father leaves her with, memories and love of his father must be sealed in the house....   [tags: William Faulkner, A Rose for Emily] 510 words
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Why Do People Help Others? - To discuss why people help others we must consider whether people are by nature selfless or selfish. The dominant view today in psychology is of universal egoism; that we are fundamentally selfish, and that altruism (helping motivated by the wish to benefit another person) an impossibility.One form of universal egoism is Piliavin et al’s "arousal: cost-reward" model, whereby faced with a potential helping situation we weigh the probable costs and rewards of alternative courses of action, then arrive at a decision which produces the best outcome for ourselves.Darley and Batson (1973) conducted an experiment into the effect of the cost time in the decision to offer help....   [tags: essays research papers] 586 words
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Ethical and Psychological Hedonism - ... To compare, then, in general hedonism is about valuing pleasure; depending on what kind we are talking about, it may hold different meanings entirely. Ethical hedonism is one branch which states that a person ought to be entitled to act in ways so as to achieve the greatest amount of personal pleasure (and minimize the amount of personal pain). This normative statement is in sharp contrast to the descriptive—and theoretically baseless—concept of psychological hedonism which argues that a human is always motivated by a desire to achieve personal pleasures....   [tags: ethical hedonism, psychological hedonism]
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Multiple Flavors of Hedonism - Hedonism Two Ways The basic tenet of hedonism states that pleasure or happiness is the highest good and ought to be what people strive for as an ultimate end. That being said, there are multiple flavors of hedonism with varying qualities, principles, definitions, and consequences. Ethical hedonism and psychological hedonism tend to garner the most attention. These two theories are similar at their foundations—later to be discussed—but when defined one is descriptive and the other normative in the nature of their values....   [tags: pleasure, desire, moral] 1312 words
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Medical Marijuana Ethical Issues - The process by which society detects and interprets information from the external world in a utilitarian theory claims: one should always do the greatest good for the greatest number of people. When one has the motivation to reach goals for the benefit of one’s self it is known as ethical egoism. In this paper we shall consider a brief history of cannabis, the parallels of legalizing medical marijuana and prohibition of alcohol in the 1920’s with regard to ethical egoism and utilitarian theories....   [tags: medicine, medical drugs]
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Consequentialism, Non- Consequentialism, Virtue Ethics and Care Ethics - Introduction This essay will provide a theoretical understanding of the four ethical frameworks: Consequentialism, Non- Consequentialism, Virtue Ethics and Care Ethics. When applied to a situation these frameworks help teachers to resolve and justify their decision making. The objective is to apply the four frameworks to the scenario Helping Molly, to establish the most ethical course of action. Finally, a recommended course of action will be justification. The overarching ethical issue present within the Helping Molly scenario is the community sponsorship and the alignment with school beliefs and initiatives....   [tags: Ethics]
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The Dangers of Objectification - The Dangers of Objectification Consider for a moment the course typically taken in a class discussion. A person states that he is an egoist, or a relativist, or an absolutist. These various terms are used to classify an individual according to his moral philosophy. Nietzsche has an important objection to these simplistic definitions. "Shall we still speak this way today. May we do so?" (Nietzsche 463) There are difficulties in this simplistic approach to classifying an individual. The first is that an individual is not so easily crammed into a verbal box....   [tags: Philosophy essays] 795 words
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Hedonism and Ethical Hedonism - Hedonism and Ethical Hedonism Philosophers commonly distinguish between psychological hedonism and ethical hedonism. Psychological hedonism is the view that humans are psychologically constructed in such a way that we exclusively desire pleasure. Ethical hedonism is the view that our fundamental moral obligation is to maximize pleasure or happiness. Ethical hedonism is most associated with the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus *http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/e/epicur.htm* (342-270 BCE.) who taught that our life's goal should be to minimize pain and maximize pleasure....   [tags: Papers] 987 words
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Ethics and Financial Industry meltdown - Introduction Financial organizations and the banking industry have supported their customers for centuries. Their purpose is to assist their customers in increasing and securing their wealth, provide services such as loans to business and customers, and provide their stockholders profits. While being a very mature industry, somehow things went very wrong in the mid to late 2000’s, what was a very active housing market in the United States came to a screeching halt and the global economy began to collapse....   [tags: FInancial Organizations, Banking Industry]
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High Level Management - High level management Management is the most important basic knowledge that leaders in an organization should possess to improve their activities and build a good name among others. Management Leadership Training Program assists in training managers on how to effectively organize their activities through gaining of skills needed to cater for the needs of the organization and other leaders in the mid-level management. In most companies, performance is rewarded by promotion to high managerial seats but this does not guarantee that the individual possess the necessary skills on how to effectively manage people....   [tags: Business Management ]
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Critical Review: Bradley A. Thayer, Bring in Darwin: Evolutionary theory, Realism, and International Relations - In Thayer’s article, he makes an attempt to incorporate Darwin’s Evolutionary Theory into the international security studies. The article tries to answer a central question that what are the implications of Evolutionary theory to realist theory of international security and in what way can peace be achieved if warfare is part of human nature. This paper agrees with Thayer that Evolutionary theory provides a scientific theory foundation for realism and is an ultimate cause for war and ethnic conflicts, as well as the assumption that origin of war is intrinsic in human nature as part of their evolution history....   [tags: International Relations]
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Four Normative Theories Which Help Guide Ethical Decision Making - Ethics permeates all aspects of society, both on an individual and societal level for it involves human interaction. The ethical decision-making models, like humans – are complex and do not exist in isolation, thus finding a set of uniform ethical values and standards in a multicultural society is highly challenging. This essay will briefly overview four Normative theories which help guide ethical decision making, regarding the hypothetical scenario case given from the teacher’s perspective. Main Ethical Issue This scenario offers a plethora of complex situations; however the main ethical issue appears to surround the lack of safety, understanding and respect due to different cultural view...   [tags: Ethics]
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Reflective Analyses of Ethical Principles and Applications - Reflection The intended learning outcome for the CONR 638: Ethics and Conflict Resolution Course offered at Abilene Christine University, (ACU) according to the course syllabus, was to prepare students “to reach a higher critical and reflective consciousness of the relationship of ethics to decision-making and problem solving in conflict resolution” (ACU, 2010). By learning to think on a higher plain, students are placed in a position to better adapt to different alternative dispute resolution (ADR) situations....   [tags: Higher Education ]
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Free Market Capitalism vs. Egalitarian Communalism - Intended as a proprietor of interests of its citizens, American capitalism has been chosen by the Founding Fathers as their concept of the supreme governing force to establishing a productive, intellectually encouraging society for each individual citizen. Many supporters of capitalism look to it as the only way the interests of citizens can be adequately taken into account, allowing each to accrue unrestricted amounts of private property, while still maintaining a relatively large central government....   [tags: Political Science]
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The Rise of Evil in King Lear - King Lear:  The Rise of Evil                   King Lear, the principal character in Shakespeare’s play of the same name, is a dominating imperious king. Though he takes initiative to disinherit his youngest daughter and exile his faithful friend, there is not in him the capacity for conscious and intentioned evil that is prevalent in his two elder daughters as well as in Cornwall, Edmund and Oswald. Nevertheless, there is a force in Lear that releases a movement of destruction in which evil does rise and momentarily take hold on the course of events....   [tags: King Lear essays]
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Doing the Right Thing in Hamlet - Doing the "Right" Thing in Hamlet       When an individual has taken a certain course of action, who is to determine whether that action taken was right or wrong. And what basis should the individual passing judgment use to decide whether that action was right or wrong. Should the individual passing judgment consider the other individual's purpose or intent in taking the action, or should he consider the resulting consequences of the other individual's actions. If the individual passing judgment were to choose to do the first of these two alternatives, he would be taking a deontological stance, as compared to the later which describes the consequentialist view....   [tags: The Tragedy of Hamlet Essays]
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The Ethics of Torture - In the United States legal system, torture is currently defined as “an act committed by a person acting under the color of law specifically intended to inflict severe physical or mental pain or suffering (other than pain or suffering incidental to lawful sanctions) upon another person within his custody or physical control.” as defined by Office of the Law Revision Counsel, U.S. House of Representatives (US Code, 1) Though this is a seemingly black and white definition, the conditional “…other than pain or suffering incidental to lawful sanctions…” have led many to question what precisely this entails....   [tags: Ethical Torture]
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Materialism in Russian Literature - In the mid-nineteenth century Western Europe had a firm grasp on Russian society and culture. At that time, Western Europe called for Modernization, which places a heavy emphasis on wealth and social maneuverability often leading to increased Economic Materialism and Egoism. Both Leo Tolstoy, in his work, The Death of Ivan Ilyich and Fyodor Dostoyevsky, in his work, Notes from Underground criticize Modernization and its effects as a danger to society. At the same time, both seem to advocate for moral and intellectual altruism often portrayed through the peasant class and as a byproduct of physical and emotional suffering....   [tags: Modernization, Egotistical, Tolstoy]
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Irish Airline: Ryanair - Ryanair an Irish airline founded in 1985 has seen huge growth with workforce of just 25 to now over 9000 skilled professionals, branding themselves as Europe’s only ultra-low cost airline they are always looking for new ways too save on costs and increase on profits. This essay will draw upon, at what point they become ‘un-ethical’ i.e. the extra charges they add to the total bill e.g. a £160 charge for a name change in high season (Ryanair.com 2014,a), They have even been accused of carrying less emergency fuel to improve both fuel efficiency and competiveness (The Economist, 2013)....   [tags: ethical analysis, stakeholder]
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Does Altruism Exist? - To address the argument, psychologists on both sides have conducted their own experiments in order to assert whether true altruism exists or not. Batson and colleagues argue yes, empathic reaction is a source of altruistic motivation. On the contrary, Cialdini and colleagues argue that egoism is a source for helping and that altruism does not exist. Although neither truly answered the original question, they came up with different viewpoints from similar results based on Batson’s original experiment....   [tags: helping selfishly, psychological analysis] 655 words
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Re-interpretation of the Philosophical Thought of Benjamin Constant - Re-interpretation of the Philosophical Thought of Benjamin Constant ABSTRACT: The liberal French thinker Benjamin Constant develops a conception of human nature which shows the triplicity of being human. Such triplicity manifests itself in the close connection between emotion, rationality, and animality. He also develops an idea of liberty which treats it only as a real, historically conditioned minimalization of external limitations. Liberty thus understood enjoys metaphysical rootedness in human nature....   [tags: Philosophy Psychological Psychology Essays] 2797 words
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Business Ethics and Ethical Leadership - 1. Seminar 4 required us to debate on the following title “This Business School believes that ethical leadership is impossible in a shareholder focused economy” through the view of four characters. Mike, a non-consequentialist deontologist in the 5th stage of Kohlberg’s (SoCMD) (Figure 1.) argued that ethical behaviour of corporations should be set in a top-bottom structure and that ethical leadership should be reflected in this manner through respecting the governance code and corporate ethics....   [tags: business ethics, ethical leadership, ethics]
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Parents Putting Children in Leashes - In this day and age there is the increasingly popular belief that everything is an ethical issue. Everything from the colors that you wear, to the people that you choose to love, to what you eat for breakfast, someone somewhere will tear it apart and find an ethical issue. Name anything that you as an individual strongly believe in, and you can find someone that thinks the exact opposite and cannot wait to tell you about how their way of thinking is correct. That is mainly a product of post-modernism, combined with the end of modernism and the belief that there is a discoverable absolute truth....   [tags: Parenting, Children, Morality, Ethics]
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Moral Position - Moral Position Dworkin's moral position is reasons, foundation theory and self-evident. Moral position has to give good (articulate) reasons for moral position to be valid. Things like prejudices and emotions are not justifiable characteristics for a moral position. In Dworkin's essay The Concept of a Moral Position, he elaborates on what a moral position really is, and what it isn't. Dworkin states that moral position cannot be based on prejudice or emotion. According to Webster's dictionary, prejudice is the unreasonable feelings, opinions, or attitudes of a hostile nature regarding a racial, religious or national group....   [tags: Papers] 1056 words
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The Egoistic Friend - <a href="http://www.geocities.com/vaksam/">Sam Vaknin's Psychology, Philosophy, Economics and Foreign Affairs Web Sites What are friends for and how can a friendship be tested. By behaving altruistically, would be the most common answer and by sacrificing one's interests in favour of one's friends. Friendship implies the converse of egoism, both psychologically and ethically. But then we say that the dog is "man's best friend". After all, it is characterized by unconditional love, by unselfish behaviour, by sacrifice, when necessary....   [tags: essays research papers] 1471 words
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Corporate Social Responsibility - Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is the concept that corporations are expected to perform certain acts for the betterment of society. The article “Doing Right Leads to Doing Well”, explores CSR by contending that although firms use these tactics for some societal good, they may also be linked with increased brand identification and consumer trust, which may bloat the firm’s bottom line. The authors maintain that CSR outputs such as sponsorship, cause-related marketing, and pure philanthropy can be positively correlated to both “in-role” and “extra-role” consumer behaviors....   [tags: Business Management ] 1657 words
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The Art of Racing in the Rain: Through the Eyes of Man's Best Friend - The Art of Racing in the Rain is, by far, the best book I have ever read. The story takes place in Seattle, Washington. It is told completely through a dog’s eyes. This special dog, Enzo, is adopted from a small farm in Washington when he is just a puppy. His view of life is interesting; Enzo only has gestures. He cannot communicate like humans can. Life is very humble and simple through the eyes of a dog. Enzo’s beloved owner, Denny, is a very talented racecar driver and works at a high-end car garage....   [tags: Garth Stein novel analysis] 630 words
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Analyzing 'Helping Molly' Using the Four Ethical Frameworks - Introduction In the scenario ‘Helping Molly’, the teacher is faced with a number of ethical issues that must be resolved. The main ethical issue this essay will attempt to deconstruct using the four ethical frameworks is whether to agree or deny helping McJacks promote their fast food chain and receive a donation of instruments, even though their promotion contradicts the schools health program. Another underlying ethical issue is that of discrimination. McJacks has stipulated that Molly is not to be involved in the promotional shots as her ‘big build’ is not keeping with the image the company is trying to project....   [tags: Ethics ]
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Mandating Seat Belt Usage vs. Freedom of Choice - Mandating Seat Belt Usage vs. Freedom of Choice SOC120: Introduction to Ethics and Social Responsibilities 1 How do you feel when you are told what you will or will not do. You may be told that it is for your own good, but who has the right to decide what is or is not good for you. After all who knows you better than you do. This brings me to the topic of my discussion. Even though there are some statistics that may show a lower rate of injury or death if you wear a seat belt when in an automobile accident, I do not feel that the government has the right to make wearing a seat belt mandatory for adults because by making seat belts mandatory it takes away from our right to freedom...   [tags: Ethics ]
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What is Popular is Not Always Right - A virulent plague cascaded over the entire student body, engulfing their minds to the point where there was no sense of logic left in their noggins. This viral pandemic festered in the homes of nearly the entire populace, and by now it was unstoppable. Caressing the feet of many, the atrocious shoe brand “Crocs" took its toll and won the admiration of the ignorant. Little did these children know about the nasty cases of foot fungus it would cause. Yet, a boy by the name of Cornelius would be darned to allow this obnoxious trend get the best of him, for he too was once a victim....   [tags: Sociology ] 2069 words
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