Essay on A Glance into Global Orange Juice Production

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A Glance Into Global Orange Juice Production

Oranges originally come from Asia, but were brought to the Mediterranean during the 13th century (Morton 1987). They were first used in medicine, then grown for consumption, and by the 1500’s were found in South America and Mexico. There are around 12 varieties of oranges, grown in places such as the U.S., Brazil, South Africa, and the Mediterranean. The orange tree grows in subtropical climates, may reach a height of 25ft and has compound leaves up to 6in. long (Morton 1987). The outer rind (epicarp) is orange or yellow when ripe, while the inner rind (mesocarp) is white, spongy and non-aromatic (Morton 1987). The pulp (endocarp) consists of juice sacs enclosed in 10 to 14 wedge-shaped compartments which are separated as individual segments; in each segment there may be 2 to 4 white-colored irregular seeds, though some types of oranges are seedless (Morton 1987).

Low soil temperatures in citrus plants cause low root temperatures, leading to foliage wilt; the optimum temperature for root growth is 79F and 54F at the lowest (North & Wallace 1955). Soils should also be well drained, as trees grow best with an annual precipitation of 5-20in. (Morton 1987). Harvesters fertilize the soil with N, K, and P in order to optimize growth. Common pests that affect orange and other citrus fruits are rust mites, mealybugs, aphids and scale insects. They may cause blemishing on the outside of the fruit, and sometimes even smaller fruits, pre-mature falling, leaf curling and leaf shedding (Morton 1987). However, parasitic fungi and wasps control the mites and scales, and chemicals and pheromone trapping may be used to control those pest species that do not have a biological control agent. Orange...

... middle of paper ...

... Extension Service, Fact Sheet FS8.
Morton, Julia F. (1987) Orange - Fruits of Warm Climates (pp. 134-42). Miami, FL.
Purdue University. Web.
North, C. P., and Wallace, A. (1955) Soil temperature and citrus: low soil temperature
contributes to low number of roots under citrus trees in some areas of southern California. California Agriculture, 9(11), (1955): 13. Web.
Ros-Chumillas, M., Belissario, Y., Iguaz, A., and López, A. (2007). Quality and shelf life
of orange juice aseptically packaged in PET bottles. Journal of Food Engineering, 79(1), 13.
Santos, R.M.d., Naas, I.d.A., Mollo Neto, M., and Vendrametto, O. (2013) An overview
on the Brazilian orange juice production chain. Rev. Bras. Frutic, 35(1), 218-225.
Vila, N., & Ampuero, O. (2007). The role of packaging in positioning an orange juice.
Journal of Food Products Marketing, 13 (3), 21-48.

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