When to Speak in a Conversation Essay

:: 14 Works Cited
Length: 1536 words (4.4 double-spaced pages)
Rating: Blue      
Open Document
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

A conversation necessarily requires multiple participants, and assuming all members have the right to speak, the act of turn-taking will take place. Schegloff and Sacks wrote that “two basic features of conversation are proposed to be: (1) at least, and no more than, one party speaks at a time in a single conversation; and (2) speaker change recurs” (1973:293), with the latter highlighting the ubiquity of turn-taking in spoken discourse. The first feature is rather idealistic, with overlaps frequent in everyday conversation, but it implies a sense of general cooperation, with participants typically allowing speakers to finish their turn before taking their own. In this analysis of a post-match conversation fragment involving a researcher, a player and the coaches of a New Zealand rugby team, I will explore the various features used prior to turn-taking to foreshadow the termination of their speaking slot. I will also look at examples of interruption, and see if they threaten the cooperative nature of the exchange.
Speaker selection
The vast majority of utterances in the conversation do not explicitly select the next speaker, and instead tend to manifest as general comments about the preceding match. They are not directed at anyone in particular, but rather express to everyone present their individual opinion about the fixture (e.g. lines 1, 4, 5 and 7). Even the question on line 11, “What was it?”, is asked broadly to those present, with any one of the participants deemed qualified to answer. Those involved receive very little overt instruction as to who should speak next and as the turns are “so constructed as not to involve the use of a ‘current speaker selects next’ technique”, the next speaker is decided mainly b...

... middle of paper ...

...mplest Systematics for the Organisation of Turn-Taking for Conversation’, Language, 50:696-735.
Schegloff, E. and Sacks, H. (1973) ‘Opening Up Closings’, Semiotica, 7:289-327.
Schegloff, E. (1996) ‘Turn-organization: one intersection of grammar and interaction’, In: E. Ochs, E. Schegloff and S. Thompson (eds.) Interaction and Grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 52-133.
Swann, J. (2009) ‘Language Choice and Code-Switching’, In: A. Deumert, W. Leap, R. Mesthrie and J. Swann (eds.) Introducing Sociolinguistics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. 146-182.
Tannen, D. (1984) Conversational Style: Analysing Talk Among Friends. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Zimmerman, D. and West, C. (1975) ‘Sex Roles, Interruptions and Silences in Conversation’, In: B. Thorne and N. Henley (eds.) Language and Sex: Difference and Dominance. Rowley: Newbury House. 105-129.

Click the button above to view the complete essay, speech, term paper, or research paper

This essay is 100% guaranteed.

Title Length Color Rating  
Demonstrative Communication: Face to Face Conversation Essays - ... For instance if the same mother walked in on the same teenager and asked what they were watching in a friendly tone, the teenager may assume the mother accepts this behavior even though the mother may not. Spoken in a louder more serious tone the teenager would be less likely to misunderstand. They would know that the mother does not agree and there will be trouble if caught again. Tone is also very crucial in making the message positive or negative. If a speaker were on a platform speaking about women’s’ rights and their tone was very drab, this would not excite the audience or make them feel positive about what the speaker had to say....   [tags: signals, verbal, nonverbal, tone]
:: 1 Works Cited
702 words
(2 pages)
Better Essays [preview]
To Speak or Not To Speak Essay - To Speak or Not To Speak Imagine, you have just given birth to your first child. Emotions of happiness, love, and excitement surround you and your partner as you adore the newborn baby lying in your arms. You are so relieved that the labor went smoothly and to know that your baby was born completely normal, or so the doctors say. However, a couple years later, you are having premonitions that your child is not developing normally. He is not responding to your voice, nor does he react to loud noises, crashing and banging sounds, sirens, etc....   [tags: essays papers] 2466 words
(7 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Fluency in Conversation Essay - The lesson that was observed was given to a group of adolescents around fourteen years old, with B1 and B2 level (Intermediate to Upper Intermediate). It aimed to practice the use of past and past perfect through conversation. The strategy was basically to encourage students to talk about their experiences during this academic year, therefore to make them produce language and to foster the use of complex grammatical structures. Regardless the complete fulfilment of the objective, the session was a useful opportunity for the learners to concentrate on fluency by taking away the stress of evaluation to which they are often exposed to....   [tags: Language] 1113 words
(3.2 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Essay on The Humorous Take on Racism in Telephone Conversation - ... Shatz and LoSchiavo have been integrating humor into their online classes with positive results. Having funny jokes and cartoons related to the subject has increased the number of times students interact in the discussion board and overall increase their interest in the class (Weinstein). Their use of humor in their teachings help people participate more and get them out of their comfort zone. Similar results like the one Shatz and LoSchiavo experienced during their study can happen by using humor to spread interest in discrimination....   [tags: funny jokes and cartoons ] 813 words
(2.3 pages)
Better Essays [preview]
Studying Language Acquisition Essays - ... The emphasis is on the text of the communication and not on the form. Young students who are in the process of acquiring English get plenty of practice. They willingly acquire the language to communicate with classmates. Language learning is not a way to communicate with others. It is the result of explicit instruction in the rules of language. And it definitely is not an age appropriate activity for your young learners. In language learning, students have conscious knowledge of the new language and can talk about it....   [tags: learning to speak a second language] 639 words
(1.8 pages)
Better Essays [preview]
The Telephone Conversation by Wole Soyinka Essay - The Telephone Conversation by Wole Soyinka The "Telephone Conversation" by Wole Soyinka is a poem that's title is very casual and straight forward. The poem's title shows the reader that what they are meant to read is realistic and free flowing. Like most poems there is a general theme that is carried on from start to end. The "Telephone Conversation" has two main obvious themes; these are racism and the lack of education and understanding that some people may have. As the reader reads through the play they become aware that the persona is African and therefore has a darker skin tone than white skinned people....   [tags: Papers Poem Poetry] 1012 words
(2.9 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Techniques of Argumentation in Stuart Greene's Essay, Arguement as Conversation - The essay by Stuart Greene certainly drives home the quote that “there is nothing new under the sun”. In fact, in trying to discover who to give credit for this particular quote Shakespeare, Bierce, and Ecclesiastes 1:4-11 was cited for saying it. The point here is that research is crucial to writing arguments on any topic. Without research, a person will possibly be reiterating what has already been said, which does not propel an argument forward. Although research is vital to a convincing argument, it is only the beginning....   [tags: dialogue, framing, topic] 579 words
(1.7 pages)
Good Essays [preview]
Analysis of Allison Joseph´s On Being Told I Don´t Speak Like a Black Person - ... This poem shows examples of a Jamaican school room, “Trained in England, they tried/ to force their pupils to speak/ like Eliza Doolittle after/ her transformation” (6-9), is a quote that shows that the teachers wanted their students to speak “properly” and because of their accent they didn’t speak exactly how the teacher wanted them to. This example is significant to the topic because it shows that the geography of the classroom was in Jamaica, but the teachers were trained to speak with English accents and expected their students to speak the way they were taught....   [tags: accent, jamacian, culture, mother] 687 words
(2 pages)
Better Essays [preview]
Differences in Dialect when Allowing Students Free-reign to Choose the Topic of Conversation - ... Interruptions were definitely taken with a grain of salt. These occurred when speakers wanted to elaborate or share an experience on the subject. Politeness was maintained during an interruption by letting the other person speak their peace, then agreeing, or supporting their argument. Another aspect of politeness noticed in the transcript, was entertaining another speakers proposed topic of discussion. For an example, when Speaker 2 presented her views on the treatment of women the other speakers carried on with that topic also....   [tags: discussion, transcript, philosophies] 879 words
(2.5 pages)
Research Papers [preview]
Essay on Narration and Conversation in Charlotte Bronte's Jane Eyre - Narration and Conversation in Jane Eyre        Throughout her life, Jane Eyre, the heroine of the novel by Charlotte Bronte, relies heavily on language and story-telling to communicate her thoughts and emotions. Not only are good story-telling skills important to Jane Eyre as a the narrator, but they are also important to Jane Eyre as a character in her own novel. From the beginning of the novel, we learn of Jane's love of books -- "each picture told a story" (40) -- and of her talent for telling her own stories....   [tags: Jane Eyre Essays]
:: 1 Works Cited
1441 words
(4.1 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]