What is Business English?
Length: 2495 words (7.1 double-spaced pages)
It is a holder of data. For examples, Name, Gender, Birth Date, Age, Social Security Number and Driver’s License are all Knowledge Properties that hold a value appropriate for a specific person. In fact, the more appropriate names for these knowledge property business concepts are Person’s Name, Person’s Gender, Person’s Birth Date, etc. The use of the possessive in a SME’s statement can be an indicator to the business rule analyst that a knowledge property has been discovered. Name, Gender, Birth Date and Age can apply to other thingees besides Person. All of these can equally apply to my cat. Pet’s Name, Pet’s Gender, Pet’s Birth Date and Pet’s Age are all knowledge properties. But some business concepts that behave like a characteristic, but can’t hold a value because they exist independent of any Thingee. However, these types of characteristics may serve as the basis for defining the properties of other characteristics. The Name, Gender, Birth Date and Age business concepts can be thought of as templates that can be used as the basis of defining knowledge properties are similar to one another. For example, almost all knowledge properties that are names have a similar definition and similar domain (for example, “Text that is used to reference the associated object alphanumeric” and maximum length 50). By classifying a thingee’s Name knowledge property to the Name characteristic classifier, the Name knowledge property inherits the properties specified for the classifier. Any property can be overridden at the knowledge property level. For example, I may decide that Person’s Name can only contain alphabetic characters and Product Name is unique across all products. When a knowledge property has been classified, its classification can serve as a keyword in a search. You can ask to view all characteristics classified as a Name, even if the business concepts do not have the term “Name” in their name. Characteristic classifiers can be considered by Data Management as the set of business rules that are candidates to be supported by Classwords in their attribute and column naming standards. Business Concept Classification Scheme Characteristic-Related Business Rules Some business rule categories are primarily oriented toward stating properties, associations, expected behavior or constraints associated with characteristics. These business rules specify how characteristics are classified, associated with their thingees, grouped together into a collections and describe their domain and derivation algorithms. Characteristic Related Business Rule Categories Characteristic Classification As already discussed, a Characteristic Classifier specifies properties that are inherited by all the characteristics that it classifies. The Characteristic Classification business rule associates a specific Characteristic with its Characteristic Classifier. Every Knowledge Property should have a classifier identified for it. In addition, a Characteristic Classifier may be classified by another classifier, forming a classification hierarchy, through a series of Characteristic Classification business rules. For example, consider the situation in which four characteristic classifiers and three knowledge properties exist. As the definition of each characteristic, there are nuances between each of the characteristic classifiers that provide guidance in determining which classifier should be associated with a knowledge property. A Business Rules Management (BRM) product should understand the inheritance between the parent and child characteristics that participate in a Characteristic Classification business rule. When specifying the details of the child characteristic, any properties defined for the classifying characteristic should automatically be made available for use by the classified characteristic, including any Domain and Derivation business rules. You should have the ability to override these properties and business rules to meet the specific needs of the child characteristic. The value of some characteristics can be derived. In this situation, a Derivation business rule is stated expressed in terms of an algorithm can be used to determine the value. The algorithm may use other characteristics as input, as well as mathematical, date and string manipulation functions. Business rules exist to guide and, when possible, control the behavior of the enterprise. Business rules are communicated throughout the organization through its policy manuals. Each release of the enterprise’s policy manuals reflect its business rule set at a specific point in time. Likewise, the enterprise’s procedure manuals identify its business processes and describe how it expects to behave when specific business events occur. http://www.tdan.com/i023ht02.htm Similarities with other ESP course. The first is that we support the idea that a student should be the subject and not the object in the teaching process and the second is that in the time of rapid changes and inventions, teaching subjects should accommodate, as currently as possible, the dynamic reality of everyday life. We believed that students’ answers might considerably help us achieve both previously mentioned objectives. Firstly, they would disclose students’ attitudes and ambitions toward ESP learning and secondly, their answers would influence the content of new working materials. In this way, we could obtain modern and current materials serving our students and not the other way round. We also hoped that active students’ involvement in creating materials could result in changing their attitude toward ESP learning. A Needs Analysis Project in ESP161The highest percentage of students have learned English either in secondary 56% or grammar schools 40%, very few have had individual instruction, attended schools for foreign languages or learned abroad. When asked to self-assess their knowledge of English by means of the scale 1-9, more than a half (63%) of students chose grades 5-7. The percentage of students with very good and poor knowledge of English corresponds with the results of the placement test from the beginning of the school year, but we tend to believe that in the self-assessment questionnaire students in both departments over-estimated their abilities. Not surprisingly, students who opted for grade 9 have often attended classes in schools for foreign languages, had individual classes or learned alone. Next, the students were asked to assess their knowledge in different skills. http://www.google.com.pk/search?q=cache:eQ2F1YnAKwcJ:www.britishcouncil.hr/english/esp/seddpn.pdf+Similarities+with+other+ESP+course+of+Business+English++&hl=en&ie=UTF-8 With the increment of Departments of Applied English among colleges and vocational schools in Taiwan, the importance and necessity of accessing to English for Specific Purposes (ESP) emerges. Among the principles provided by each Department of Applied English, Business English is the most prominent. This article will briefly present the notion of ESP and further discuss its relationship with Business English whose contemporary state and related issues will be dealt with. To narrow down this domain, Business writing in English will be predominantly elaborated. Articles selected in the 1990s will be the major data source. Business English ESP and Business English The main reason to select Business English as the topic, not other varieties of ESP programs, is that international transaction is the vessel of Taiwan’s economic growth; thus, it is preferable for teachers or educators touch upon this field. Such understanding may in turn drag their attention to this domain and lead them to contribute more to this area. The utmost goal is they can facilitate the nation to develop the qualified personnel to further enhance our economic and financial status. Literally, St John (1996) considered that demand for Business English has burgeoned in recent years and these has been a mushrooming of courses for learners, courses for teachers, materials for learners, and reference material. However, through the process of development, Business English itself has extended to more facets and adjusted in accordance with various requirements, so its surface structure will be dissimilar to its original deep structure, which is ESP. http://www.google.com.pk/search?q=cache:AuW2e9dwqhUJ:taielt.fl.nthu.edu.tw/theory/termP%255CTEFL%2520Term%2520Paper-895210%2520Gina%2520Wu.doc+Similarities+with+other+ESP+course+of+Business+English++&hl=en&ie=UTF-8 Differences from other ESP course. Business communication today not only includes business language proficiency, but it also involves communication strategies and techniques, and an intercultural dimension. The intercultural background of communicators is important for successful interaction in the target culture country. Therefore, it is necessary to include intercultural issues in syllabuses both in terms of language proficiency, of philosophic, sociological and psychological bases, and at the same time pragmatic is-sues involving specific cultural data. A successful businessman is supposed to develop an empathic approach toward business with people from other cultures, i.e. being aware of the importance of understanding cultural differences in order to prevent such differences from undermining their negotiations. Empathic understanding focuses on behavioural responses to the situation, involving the ability to understand that there are several business areas. Communicators need to develop an appreciation of the ways things may be different abroad in reaction to their own culture and they should know a lot about history, art, literature, politics, economics, religion, psychology, sociology, and anthropology of the target culture. They must be aware of the existence of the different negotiating styles they may experience during their business negotiations and must be provided with key facts about various cultures. All the mentioned issues should be taken into consideration when designing syllabuses for new courses of business English and in our opinion researchers in the field of intercultural communication are supposed to be familiar with theoretical bases, especially those concerning cultural values and international negotiating styles. http://www.google.com.pk/search?q=cache:dv0Oxwr9dK0J:www.britishcouncil.hr/english/esp/heiidi.pdf+Differences+from+other+ESP+course+of+Business+English++&hl=en&ie=UTF-8 Absolute characteristics ESP is designed to meet specific needs of the learner; ESP makes use of the underlying methodology and activities of the disciplines it serves; ESP is centred on the language (grammar, lexis, register), skills, discourses and genres appropriate to these activities. Variable characteristics: ESP may be related to or designed for specific disciplines; ESP may use, in specific teaching situations, a different methodology from that of general English; ESP is likely to be fashioned for adult learners [of their specific area], either at a tertiary level institution or in a professional work situation. It could, however, be used for learners at secondary school level; ESP is generally designed for intermediate or advanced students [of English]. Most ESP courses assume basic knowledge of the language system, but it can be used with beginners. http://www.ling.lancs.ac.uk/staff/greg/genre/ESPOUT.htm The issues should be considered in the teaching of Business English Another adapted approach may be mingling one theory with classroom practice and examine if the results reflect the theory, taking Tsai (2000) The Effect of Metacognitve Awareness on ESP Learning as an instance. Under the concern that the use of the so-called authentic materials in ESP courses may overload the learners with the content and the language and in turn result in negative learning effects, Tsai raised the theory of metacognitive awareness at first and incorporated this theory into the experimental group later in her study. Teacher issue More than the issue of less research-led, by whom should Business English be instructed is also the thorny matter bringing about discussion (e.g. Tsai, 1998; Yang, 2001). This matter virtually exists among other ESP varieties, and researchers in Taiwan relate this controversial issue to the area of Business English most. The reasons that Business English gains most prominence may be because that Taiwan heavily relies on international trade, and at present most Departments of Applied English provide learners with Business English courses to a great extent (surveyed by Shi et al, 1998). Several researchers have broached this issue at different periods and reached certain degree of consensus on this disputable theme. Materials issue It is fully apparent that Business is a materials-dominant movement and the gradual growth of Business English as usual, this type of resources tend to overlook learners? previous knowledge, randomly deploy the structure or vocabulary exercises, and leave great distance from use in real life. Focusing on gambits is to demonstrate settled expressions that can be used in meetings to show, for instance, agreements or arguments. Materials emphasizing on gambits are still popular among course-book writers even today. Like the specialist lexis, some gambits taught may be rarely used in the reality. Materials with case study approach are most welcomed nowadays. Being aware of the framework of materials developing is an advantage for instructors as this awareness can be the reference during the selection of materials. Instruction issue To narrow down the field, teaching of Business writing in this section will be emphasized. Articles selected in the 1990s will be the major data source to probe into current instructional approaches in Business writing course, based on personal interests. The reviewed articles demonstrated an opposite-to-the-perception instructional approach in business writing classes.