Journalistic History

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11. Yellow Journalism- The cartoon “Hogan’s Alley” depicted a tenement urchin, “The Yellow Kid,” who mocked upper-class customs and wore a yellow gown. When THE JOURNAL matched THE WORLD in color print, the author of the cartoon switched newspapers. The ensuing dispute gave rise to “yellow journalism” (unprincipled journalism) and led to the recruitment of countless newsboys in a bid to increase sales. The biggest yellow journalists were Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst (“Please remain. You furnish the pictures. I’ll furnish the war.”)

17. Bohemian Thinkers- Many of these “thinkers” lived in Greenwich Village, NYC. They supported Freudian psychoanalysis, rejected traditional sexual traditions, and the Victorian life. This group included Isadore Duncan; the Ashcan artists (Henri, Sloan, and Luk); Eugene O’Neill, the playwright; Margaret Sanger, early supporter of birth control. Their influence was limited because they didn’t involve themselves in the reform movement. Their attitude was “do as I say, not as I do.”

21. Spanish-American War- The Spanish-American War was fought in 1898. The causes of this war were American concern for Cuban independence; the rise of yellow journalism; American business interests in Cuba; the DeLome letter, which was written by the Spanish Foreign Minister and criticized President McKinley; and the sinking of the USS Maine, which sank in the Havana Harbor on February 15, 1898 and was blamed on the Spanish. The war was declared on April 10, 1898 and the treaty was signed on April 17, 19—(I wrote the wrong year and have to go back and look it up, sorry!)

23. Theodore Roosevelt- Theodore Roosevelt, the first Progressive Era president and former governor of New York, was an outgoing outdoorsman who was full of life. He was also known as the “Trust-buster,” but didn’t believe that big corporations should be broken up indiscriminately. Regulation seemed the better approach to him. With Roosevelt’s “Square Deal”, TR had the government intervene in the United Mine Worker’s strike in 1902, and the sides soon settled. He continued and succeeded in reforms in railroads with the Hepburn Bill that strengthened the Interstate Commerce Commission (regulates RR). The Pure Food & Drug Act was passed also. The one area for which he is most famous is in conservation. Roosevelt was the first president to win a noble prize, and he lived at Sagamore Hill, NY.

30. William Jennings Bryan- William Jennings Bryan was the fundamentalists lawyer who was involved the Scopes Trial of the 1920’s.

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He argued that teaching evolution in schools was wrong, and he was awarded the case. Bryan was a great orator who made the “Cross of Gold” speech. As a fundamentalist, he rejected the societal reforms that arose in the 1920’s. Along with being a lawyer, Bryan ran for president three times. He died shortly after he won the Scopes Trial.

31. Woodrow Wilson- Wilson, the last Progressive President, was an idealist with high aspirations for the US and the world. His progressivism was tagged the “New Freedom.” He asserted that the federal government could best advance the cause of social justice. He wanted to reinstitute competition; the free enterprise system would protect the public from exploitation without destroying personal initiative. As president, Wilson enacted the Underwood Tariff, the Federal Reserve Act, the Federal Trade Commission, and the Clayton Anti-Trust Act.

32. Progressive Era Presidents- The Progressive Era Presidents consisted of three presidents with three very different personalities. Theodore Roosevelt was full of life, an outdoorsman, and outgoing. William H. Taft was the first president to play golf, the first to be over the contiguous 48 states, a business man, and very friendly. However, he did not enjoy being president and was not as successful as the other two progressive presidents. Woodrow Wilson was very serious. He was an idealist with high aspirations for the country and the world. He was governor of New Jersey and a former president of Princeton.

56. Franklin D. Roosevelt/New Deal and WWII- FDR was characterized by his elegant style and was thought of as American royalty. A distant cousin of former President Theodore Roosevelt, FDR took the same political steps as TR. He was a former governor of New York. FDR developed polio at the age of 21 and later died from this disease. FDR used the term “New Deal” in his acceptance speech and the term caught on as the name for his domestic program to fix the depression. FDR was inaugurated on March 1933 with the quote “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.” As president, FDR was well known for his fireside chats. FDR served as president during WWII, and under his administration the 21st Amendment was passed, ending the prohibition of alcohol in the US.

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