Genetic Engineering


Length: 1446 words (4.1 double-spaced pages)
Rating: Excellent
Open Document
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Text Preview

More ↓

Continue reading...

Open Document

At the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland, Dr. Keith Campbell, director of embryology at PPL therapeutics in Roslin, and his colleague Dr. Ian Wilmut worked together on a project to clone a sheep, Dolly, from adult cells. On February 22, 1997, they finally succeeded. Dolly was the only lamb born from 277 fusions of oocytes with udder cells. Wilmut says there were so many failures because it is difficult to ensure that the empty oocytes and the donor cell are at the same stage of the cell division cycle.To clone Dolly, basically scientists took an unfertilized egg cell, removed the nucleus, replaced it with cells taken from the organism to be cloned, put it into an empty egg cell which begins to develop as an embryo, and implanted this embryo into a mother, from which the clone was born.The fact that only 1 out of 277 attempts succeeded is a little scary when applied to human beings.

If an attempt to clone a human led to that high of a death toll, then there would not be many supporters. According to Rifkin, in an extensive survey of all 106 clinical trials of experimental gene therapies conducted over the past five years involving more than 597 patients, a panel of experts convened by the NIG reported that "Clinical efficacy has not been definitively demonstrated at this time in any gene therapy protocol, despite anecdotal claims of successful therapy." (545). These results are also happening with people who are trying to get gene therapy. With these facts on the table, it would not be ideal to try to clone humans if cloning an animal took several hundred attempts and human gene therapy has had hundreds of failures as well.Humans are going way beyond their limits in the field of biotechnology in the world today.

Until recently, these ideas were unheard of. Now with new technology, scientists are capable of changing an organism's genetic make-up. We are very eager to learn new things, however, this eagerness gets in the way of common sense all too often. As stated in Starr and Taggart's article, "we do not have the wisdom to bring about beneficial changes without causing great harm to ourselves or to the environment." (514). However, the naïve public may want to jump right into things, and scientists will not disagree.Scientists are messing with things that they should not be messing with.

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"Genetic Engineering." 123HelpMe.com. 24 Apr 2017
    <http://www.123HelpMe.com/view.asp?id=67029>.
Title Length Color Rating  
Pros and Cons of Genetic Engineering Essay - Genetic Engineering is highly controversial since some people believe that genetic engineering is playing God. As this fact there is opposition to the progression of the field by people who do not see the value in genetic engineering, or they fear what genetic engineering may lead to for us as people. There is a history of discover that belongs to genetic engineering, which has led to numerous products that have emerged which have brought numerous applications to the society of the world. Though there are benefits to genetic engineering, there are also drawbacks to genetic engineering including ethical and legal issues that are dealt with in today’s society in order to try and regulate the...   [tags: Genetic Engineering]
:: 8 Works Cited
2049 words
(5.9 pages)
Term Papers [preview]
The Benefits of Genetic Engineering Essay - Almost three decades ago, on July 25, 1978, Louise Brown, the first “test tube baby” was born (Baird 1). With this birth another controversy broke out, do humans have the right to make life. Most of the concern comes from the fear of control over the production and development of human beings. But, those who are against cloning would most likely look the other way if they needed gene therapy after receiving a grim diagnosis. There are many aspects of genetic engineering and to thoroughly understand it looking into each is absolutely necessary....   [tags: Genetic Engineering ]
:: 6 Works Cited
1443 words
(4.1 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
The Ethics of Genetic Engineering Essay - The Problem Genetic engineering has been around since the 1960’s although major experiments have not been really noticed until the 1990’s. The science comes in different forms the two major being cloning and genetic reconstruction. Cloning is the duplicating of one organism and making an exact copy. For example in 1996 the creation of the clone sheep named Dolly the first mammal to be cloned which was a great achievement. The other form, genetic reconstruction, is used to replace genes within humans to help or enhance the life of an unborn child for a medical reason or just for the preference of a parent....   [tags: Genetic Engineering ]
:: 5 Works Cited
1437 words
(4.1 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Essay on Apocalyptic Visions of Genetic Engineering - Global warming, nuclear winter, microscopic black holes—society views all these as apocalyptic phenomena resulting from the accelerating rate of discovery in the fields of science and technology. Opinions on fields like climate change and atomic weaponry certainly have a basis in scientific evidence, but many other apocalyptic reactions derive from hypothetical situations and thought experiments. To further examine public opinions on scientific fields, we can examine genetic engineering (GE). The possibilities of GE have prompted many ethicists to provide commentary on the topic, opening a dialogue between policy and experimentation in order to address topics such as genetically modified cro...   [tags: Genetic Engineering]
:: 7 Works Cited
2203 words
(6.3 pages)
Term Papers [preview]
Essay about The Genetic Engineering Industry - Ever wish chocolate was healthy and could have the same nutrients and vitamins as fruit and vegetables. Food, one of three necessities of life, affects every living organism on Earth. Although some foods are disliked because of taste or health issues, recent discovery will open up new prosperities and growth in agriculture. Genetic engineering has the capability to make foods taste better, increase nutrient value, and even engineer plants to produce aids for deadly health issues. Every day the progress, understanding, and development of genetic engineering is digging deeper and with this knowledge virtually anything is possible....   [tags: Genetic Engineering ]
:: 7 Works Cited
1806 words
(5.2 pages)
Term Papers [preview]
Genetic Engineering in Humans Essay - Author Chuck Klosterman said, “The simple truth is that we’re all already cyborgs more or less. Our mouths are filled with silver. Our nearsighted pupils are repaired with surgical lasers. We jam diabetics full of delicious insulin. Almost 40 percent of Americans now have prosthetic limbs. We see to have no qualms about making post-birth improvements to our feeble selves. Why are we so uncomfortable with pre-birth improvement?” Despite Klosterman’s accurate observation, there are reasons people are wearisome toward pre-birth enhancement....   [tags: Genetic Engineering ] 859 words
(2.5 pages)
Better Essays [preview]
Understanding Genetic Engineering Essay - What if cancer could be cured by eating a pear. Or if a crop of wheat could be developed so that it never rotted. These may sound like science fiction but they're not as strange as they first seem to be, and may even be reality in the future. Fifteen years ago who would have thought that plants could be created to be immune to pesticides or that it would be possible to create a sheep that is exactly like its parent in every physical way. And yet both of these currently exist due to genetic engineering....   [tags: Genetic Engineering ]
:: 13 Works Cited
1820 words
(5.2 pages)
Term Papers [preview]
Genetic Engineering Essays - Just imagine the scene: and newlywed wife and husband are sitting down with a catalog, browsing joyously, pointing and awing at all the different options, fantasizing about all the possibilities that could become of their future. Is this a catalog for new furniture. No. This catalog for all features, phenotype and genotype, for the child they are planning to have. It is basically a database for parents to pick and choose all aspects of their children, from the sex of the child, to looks, and even to personality traits....   [tags: Genetic Engineering] 1131 words
(3.2 pages)
Good Essays [preview]
Genetic Engineering Essay - Genes are, basically, the blueprints of our body which are passed down from generation to generation. Through the exploration of these inherited materials, scientists have ventured into the recent, and rather controversial, field of genetic engineering. It is described as the "artificial modification of the genetic code of a living organism", and involves the "manipulation and alteration of inborn characteristics" by humans (Lanza). Like many other issues, genetic engineering has sparked a heated debate....   [tags: Genetic Engineering ]
:: 7 Works Cited
1882 words
(5.4 pages)
Term Papers [preview]
Essay on Genetic Engineering - At the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland, Dr. Keith Campbell, director of embryology at PPL therapeutics in Roslin, and his colleague Dr. Ian Wilmut worked together on a project to clone a sheep, Dolly, from adult cells. On February 22, 1997, they finally succeeded. Dolly was the only lamb born from 277 fusions of oocytes with udder cells. Wilmut says there were so many failures because it is difficult to ensure that the empty oocytes and the donor cell are at the same stage of the cell division cycle.To clone Dolly, basically scientists took an unfertilized egg cell, removed the nucleus, replaced it with cells taken from the organism to be cloned, put it into an empty egg cell which...   [tags: Genetic Engineering Essays] 1446 words
(4.1 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]

Related Searches




Once again, they are overstepping their boundaries.

They have barely taken the time or consideration to notice the moral and ethical dilemmas of cloning, let alone to know exactly what they are getting themselves into. The problem with the world today, is that everyone wants all these exciting things to happen without considering the consequences. New knowledge and technology is not used responsibly. It must be realized that cloning is disastrous and scientists should not do it.Another example of scientists jumping into things too fast is nuclear fusion. When scientists first discovered the process of fusion, they did not hesitate to apply it to a destructive use. They immediately created the uncontrollable atomic bomb and some of these were actually used (World War 2).

The Manhattan Project was designed to figure out how to use atomic power to kill enemies. The group of scientists was so confident in their bomb, they did not even test it; its first use was in military action when the United States bombed Hiroshima (Japan) in 1945. Soon after, the Hydrogen bomb was also created. These are a thousand times more powerful than atomic bombs.It wasn't until much later (1954) that the world discovered the implications of these dangerous bombs. Since the first test millions of people have wondered whether nuclear weapons will spell the end of life on our planet. As far as genetic engineering goes, it has been a part of life ever since life has existed.

As different organisms mated with other organisms of their same species, they evolved to have different characteristics from each other. Even before the manipulation of actual DNA strands, scientists were able to "clone" such foods as seedless watermelons. Now that the technology has been mastered, what will be cloned next? Clones are not likely to turn out the same as their origin.

The environment plays a huge role in how genes are expressed. For example, a person's genes for a large body size may not be fully expressed if that person has bad nutrition. Thus, two clones will probably not have the same personality or exact characteristics. Any human clone will experience problems identifying who they are. It is almost as if they no longer can have a sense of identity. How would you like it to have a homozygous (identical) twin who is several decades older than you?Animals also raise a good issue in the clone wars.

People have always seen animals as non-feeling savage beasts and as objects to be used as necessary. Scientists are figuring out how to grow organs in (non-human) animals for transplant purposes. In Starr and Taggart's article, it is stated that cattle produce human collagen for repairing cartilage, bone and skin (513). However, if an animal had a fully functioning human brain, how would he be classified? Would he be given the rights of a regular U.S. Citizen?

The opposite of this example presents a problem as well. If scientists were to clone humans with sub-par brains, then what would they be classified as? This cannot be a good idea at all. In Brave New World by Aldous Huxley, there are different classes of people which are cloned; Alphas, Betas, Gammas, Deltas, Epsilons.

In this story, they "predestine and condition [by decanting the] babies as socialized human beings, as Alphas or Epsilons, as future sewage workers or future World controllers…" (497). Also, with the constant swapping of DNA and genetic material, it is very possible that diseases from one species of animal may mutate and infect the other. If this goes long enough, these diseases may become untreatable. I learned in a high school biology class that President Bill Clinton believes that everyone in the world should get their "DNA prints" when they are young (similar to fingerprints) and store them in a big library so that DNA can be used to identify any criminal. However, this is arguably a bit unethical, and, even if it is not seen as unethical, it just makes the situation a little tenser.

These "DNA prints" would mean that the government would have access to everyone's genes. They would know everything about everyone; could tell their weaknesses, approximate health problems, etc. This is an invasion of privacy. As Nelkin says "DNA is the essence of the person" (527).

Scientists may even tap into these resources for cloning purposes.Scientists think they can just jump in and start healing people. How are we supposed to keep down our monstrous growth rate if the field of medicine is becoming so advanced that even the scientists cannot handle it? The United Nations Population Division does world estimates every two years. According to their results, the population has gone from just over 1 billion at the turn of the century to 6 billion by the end. Also they have predicted that the population will reach 9.6 billion by 2050. According to the website NewAgeInteractive.Com, the world can only supply 8 million people with food, and this is only if all land areas are used to their maximum potential.

The cloning/creation of new human beings would just add to an already potent problem. It is great to be able to heal the sick, but with more people living longer, the world will become crowded even faster. Thus healing the sick would be detrimental to the existence of life on this planet. As more people are treated and have offspring of their own, increasing the Earth's population and population growth rate, we will approach that ugly 8 million people mark. We are not likely to eliminate all forests and pastures, so the actual sustainable population must be less than 8 billion.In conclusion, the ethical and moral implications of cloning are such that it would be wrong for anyone to agree with it.

The sole loss of life in both humans and non-humans is enough to prove that cloning would be a foolish endeavor, whatever the cause. After all, it took 277 incorrect tries before scientists got Dolly right, how many tries would it take to get a human right? Society as a whole must rethink this idea before jumping right into it. Tinkering with the essence of a person is a very perilous idea that could lead to negative changes in the world as we know it.


Return to 123HelpMe.com