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The Transformation of Terrorism Essay

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Terrorism like any other political concepts has encountered various definitions by different scholars and organizations. It has no precise or broadly accepted definition, but to put it in a description way, it would be simply stating terrorism as “a violence or the threat of violence calculated to create an atmosphere of fear and alarm – in a word, to terrorize- and thereby bring about some social or political change” (Rapoport, 2002). Furthermore, the term of terrorism has been defined by the U.S. Department of Defense, which is defined as “ the calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological objectives.”(Hoffman, 2006:12). In addition, in 2004, the resolution of 1566 by the United Nation Security Council gave a wider range of understanding about what is terrorism, which condemned terrorist acts as “criminal acts, including against civilians, committed with the intent to cause death or serious bodily injury, or taking of hostages, with the purpose to provoke a state of terror in the general public or in a group of persons or particular persons, intimidate a population or compel a government or an international organization to do or to abstain from doing any act, which constitute offences within the scope of and as defined in the international conventions and protocols relating to terrorism, are under no circumstances justifiable by considerations of a political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious or other similar nature," (UN Security Council Resolution 1566, 2004). In 1975, the first use of ‘terrorism’ word was by French Revolution...


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...omics and Political Science, 20(2), 176-184. Retrieved November, 15, 2013, from: JSTORE database. From http://www.jstor.org/stable/138596.

• Rapoport, D. (2002). The Four Waves of Rebel Terror and September 11. Retrieved November 10, 2013, from: http://www.anthropoetics.ucla.edu/ap0801/terror.htm.

• Richardson, L. (2006). What Terrorists Want? New York: Random House Trade Paperback.

• Seger, K, A. (2001). Left Wing Extremism: The Current Threat. Retrieved, November, 17, 2013. From: http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/left.pdf.

• United Nations Security Council. (2004). Security Council Acts Unanimously to Adopt Resolution Strongly Condemning Terrorism As One of Most Serious Threats to Peace. Retrieved November 5, 2013, from http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2004/sc8214.doc.htm

• Whittaker, D, J. (2007). The Terrorism Reader. (3rd Ed). London: Routledge.


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