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Essay about Theory Practice for Teaching and Learning

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1.0 COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING (CLT)
This approach concentrates on students to be able to communicate perfectly and fluently. Hymes (1972) says the goal of language teaching is “communicative competence”. According to Halliday, he claimed that learning an L2 is viewed by proponents of CLT as acquiring the linguistic means to perform different kinds of functions. Canale & Swain (1980) also made an influential analysis of communicative competence. They identified four dimensions of communicative competence which are grammatical, discourse, sociolinguistic and strategic competence. Savignon (2002) stated that communicative language teaching (CLT) refers to both processes and goals in the classroom learning. Generally, CLT aims to make communicative competence the goal of language teaching, and at the same time develop procedures for the teaching of the four language skills.
Berns (1990) before claims that appropriate communicative competence for learners requires understanding of sociocultural contexts of language use. Besides, the task principle also another example of element of the CLT practices. As stated by Johnson (1982), he explained task principle as the activities in which language is used for carrying out meaningful tasks that promote learning. Johnson (1984) and Littlewood (1984) once claimed that acquisition of communicative competence in a language is one example of skill development. As stated beforehand, we always know that CLT offers enthusiastic lesson opportunities based on the principles aligned.
The major problem why CLT is indeed difficult to apply in Malaysian classroom is because of the traditional approach of teaching grammar. Teachers usually use method of drilling, which focus on form and functions w...


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...ties. RELC Journal 16(1), 82-100.

Richards, J.C. & Rodgers, T.S., (2001).Communicative Language Teaching. In: Richards, J.C. & Rodgers T.S. and methods in language teaching (2nd ed).Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ruwandi, P. (2010). The use of appropriate methods in language teaching: REGISTER, Vol.3 (1), 63-84.

Savignon, S. (1983). Communicative Competence: Theory and Classroom Practice. Reading, Mass: Addison Wesley.

Waters, A. (2009). Advances in materials design in M. H. Long and C. J. Doughty (eds): Handbook of Language Teaching. Blackwell, in press.

Willis, J. R. (2004). Perspectives on task-based instruction: Understanding our practices, acknowledging different practitioners. In B. L. Leaver & J. R. Willis (Eds.), Task based instruction in foreign language education: Practices and programs (pp. 3-44). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.




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