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Descartes' Meditations Ontological Argument - Descartes' Meditations Ontological Argument Descartes's fifth Meditation argument for God's existence relies on an untenable notion that existence is a perfection and that it can be predicated of God. I shall first explain what Descartes's argument for God's existence is, and then present his argument in propositional form. I will then attempt to support the argument that existence is neither a perfection nor a predicate of God. In our thoughts we apprehend ideas of things. These ideas may reside entirely within our thoughts or they may exist independent of our considerations of them (Descartes 143)....   [tags: Philosophy Religion Essays]
:: 4 Works Cited
1008 words
(2.9 pages)
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Descartes’ Argument from Divisibility - Descartes’ Argument from Divisibility Works Cited Missing Reneì Descartes’ treatise on dualism, his Meditations on First Philosophy, is a seminal work in Western intellectual history, outlining his theory of the mind and its relation to the rest of the world. The main argument running through the Meditations leads from his universal methodic doubt through his famous cogito, to proofs of dualism, God, and the world. The Cartesian dualism is one of the most influential ideas to come out of the work; the style of the Meditations, however, is one of personal rumination, following what appears to be Descartes’ stream of consciousness , and it allows for mild tangential discussions....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers] 1693 words
(4.8 pages)
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Argument From Religious Experience - The Argument from Religious Experience The argument from religious experience is the argument that personal religious experiences can prove God’s existence to those that have them. One can only perceive that which exists, and so God must exist because there are those that have experienced him. While religious experiences themselves can only constitute direct evidence of God’s existence for those fortunate enough to have them, the fact that there are many people who testify to having had such experiences constitutes indirect evidence of God’s existence even to those who have not had such experiences themselves....   [tags: Religion Research Experience Existence] 1291 words
(3.7 pages)
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The Human Function Argument - The Human Function Argument Aristotle argues that the human function is activity of the soul that expresses or requires reason. This argument is found in Nicomachean Ethics approximately between Bekker lines 1097b24 and 1098a9. 1. Humans must have a function, or else they would be idle, which is absurd. Aristotle directly asks the reader if humans might have no important overall function other than a chosen occupation in society but suggests that this would not be expected of nature. Terence Irwin used the word idle in his 1985 translation when phrasing this disjunct of Aristotle?s question....   [tags: Philosophy Aristotle]
:: 2 Works Cited
2003 words
(5.7 pages)
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An Argument Against Cloning - An Argument Against Cloning Increase in genetic knowledge has created challenges in our society. Daniel Callahan focuses on these challenges and expresses his worry about the society (soil) on which this genetic knowledge is growing. Callahan asks the question of what kind of society (soil) is most likely be hazardous and introduces three patterns: 1) societies that demonize death and illness; 2) those societies that want to find biological solutions to social problems; and 3) societies with postmodern theory that there is no common social good, only a plurality of individual goods....   [tags: Argumentative Essays, Persuasive Essays] 1195 words
(3.4 pages)
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Jonathans Swifts Real Argument - Jonathan's Swift's Real Argument God only knows from whence came Freud's theory of penis envy, but one of his more tame theories, that of "reverse psychology", may have its roots in the satire of the late Jonathan Swift. I do not mean to assert that Swift employed or was at all familiar with that style of persuasion, but his style is certainly comparable. Reverse psychology (as I chose to define it for this paper) means taking arguments that affirm an issue to such a degree that they seem absurd, and thus oppose the issue....   [tags: essays research papers] 1174 words
(3.4 pages)
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Socrates' Argument with Crito - Socrates' Argument with Crito Socrates has presented a period of questions and answers through dialogue with Crito to examine if he going into exile will damage his reputation. Socrates questions and answers with Crito establishes that a person must decide whether the society he or she lives has a just reasoning behind it's own standards of right and wrong and that a person must have pride in the life that he or she leads. By confirming these two concepts through questions, Socrates attempted to prove to his companion Crito, that the choice that he has made is just: "I am the kind of man who listens only to the argument that on reflection seems best to me....   [tags: Papers] 538 words
(1.5 pages)
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Argument for Animal Rights - Argument for Animal Rights The argument for animal rights assumes that animals posses their own lives and deserve to be assigned rights in order to protect their wellbeing. This view insists that animals are not merely goods utilised only to benefit mankind and they should be allowed to choose how they want to live their lives, free from the constraints of man. But if animals are given absolute rights, then surely they shouldn’t be allowed to kill each other, as this would be a violation of these rights....   [tags: Papers] 1191 words
(3.4 pages)
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Abortion: A Pro-life Argument - Abortion: A Pro-life Argument Ellen Willis’s “Putting Women Back into the Abortion Debate” (2005) is an argument that supports women’s rights and feminism in terms of allowing all abortions to occur. She discusses abortion with the perspective that women’s rights are the issue, not human life. This argument is not accurate. Abortion is almost completely about the rights of every human being. People who are for abortion need to know a fertilized egg is just as important as someone already living, that an unborn child cannot control its need for someone to rely on for survival, and that they must accept the gender they were given without thinking it eliminates rights....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Papers]
:: 3 Works Cited
1537 words
(4.4 pages)
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Argument for Stopping Animal Abuse - Executive Summary Every 60 seconds an animal is abused. Dogs, cats, horses, and many other types of animals are being neglected and tortured everyday, yet resulting in few and minor consequences for the perpetrators. Animal abuse is prevalent in the United States and has been an ongoing issue since the 1970's, and prior to. Society as a whole has chosen to avoid the facts and arguments about animal cruelty, because to some it is seen as acceptable and typical. It becomes much more frowned upon when people actually see the results of the cruelty, especially in the media....   [tags: Animal Treatment, Animal Rights]
:: 4 Works Cited
2126 words
(6.1 pages)
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An Argument Against Abortion - An Argument Against Abortion Abortion is a serious topic that people have been debating about for years. Everywhere you turn the topic of abortion presents itself, on TV, in the newspapers, in books and magazines. It already has, and will continue to cause, controversy for years to come. As long as abortion remains legal, pro-life advocates will continue to protest what they believe to be these horrible acts of murder. Dating all the way back to the 1800’s, abortions have been taking place all over the world....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
:: 4 Works Cited
1394 words
(4 pages)
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Argument for Capital Punishment - Argument for Capital Punishment Since the 1970's, almost all capital sentences in the United States have been imposed for homicide. There has been intense debate among Americans regarding the constitutionality of capital punishment. Critics charge that executions are violations of the “cruel and unusual punishment” provision of the Eighth Amendment; while supporters of the death penalty counter that this clause was not intended to prohibit legal executions. In the 1972 court case of Furman vs....   [tags: Capital Punishment Death Essays]
:: 8 Works Cited
1903 words
(5.4 pages)
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The Death Penalty Argument - The Death Penalty Argument "A young girl by the name of Faith Hathaway had been kidnapped in Mandeville. Two boys - - we later found out their names to be Robert L. Willie and Joseph Vaccaro - - kidnapped the girl outside of a local lounge there. And brought her up here. They raped her up the hill here. We're at Frickie's cave in Washington Parish outside of Franklinton. And then they blindfolded her and they beat her up there. They blindfolded her, made her walk down the hill....   [tags: Papers] 1369 words
(3.9 pages)
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Argument Against Standardized Testing - Argument Against Standardized Testing President Bush is promoting annual standardized testing for all students in grades three through eight. This bill is currently being considered in Congress, and has garnered much support. As of right now, 15 states test students in those grades, and more than 20 have high school exit exams, which look only at the test score of a student, not at his or her academic achievements. Standardized testing is an unfair and inaccurate form of judging a person’s intellect....   [tags: Standardized Testing Essays] 903 words
(2.6 pages)
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Legalization of Drugs Argument - Legalization of Drugs Argument Man, as a creature, is inherently bored. Since the dawn of time, it has been the natural instinct of man to find alternative methods to enhance his being. The many means by which man has turned to include sex, gambling, and the consumption of substances beyond the requirements of nutrition. The consumption of substances can be further broken down into legal and illegal substances. The question then becomes, who are we to place labels on certain substances by deeming them legal and prohibit others by creating penalties for their use....   [tags: Drug Prohibition Regulation Legal Argumentative] 3263 words
(9.3 pages)
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Argument for Capital Punishment - Argument for Capital Punishment If it were up to me, every murderer in this country would be put behind bars on death row and have their life taken from them just as they took the life of another. The guidelines of " an eye for an eye" go back thousands of years. Many countries still hold true to these guidelines. Although America doesn't follow the same as these countries, I believe when it comes to murder, they should. Putting people to death for committing murder makes other potential murderers think twice about killing someone....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Capital Punishment ] 944 words
(2.7 pages)
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Research Proposal Argument Paper - Kill them; kill them all sounds harsh doesn’t it. But if you think about it, which are the way most murders, rapist, and serial killers fell about us. So why not return the favors kill them, kill them all. Like I said this is how they feel about us (criminals). You hear about it in the daily news reasons behind the crimes that criminals comment. They say it’s because of their childhood or they were just born that way (evil). And we as society accept that reasoning and say, well we need to help these criminals....   [tags: Capital Punishment]
:: 6 Works Cited
1391 words
(4 pages)
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Argument Against Capital Punishment - Welcome to America, the land of the free, of the prosperous, of the opulent. America the Beautiful, one of the only places in the world where all citizens regardless of race, background, or social class are constitutionally guaranteed life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness—that is unless you're on death row. In modern day America we are still faced with the antiquated ritual of capital punishment, a practice that interferes directly with the law of the land. The same forms of punishment used during the middle ages are still in effect today, the same ideas that should have been abolished had the U.S....   [tags: Anti Death Penalty Essays]
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1099 words
(3.1 pages)
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Ontological Argument - Most people have not witnessed or experienced God and therefore are confused about its existence. In Western theology, three theories have emerged to demonstrate the existence of God. These theories are the ontological argument, the cosmological argument, and the teleological argument. St. Anselm of eleventh century, and Descartes of seventeenth century, have used the ontological argument for proving the existence of God. The God, for them, is supreme, "needing nothing outside himself, but needful for the being and well-being of all things." (Pg....   [tags: essays research papers] 2908 words
(8.3 pages)
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Argument Communities - Argument Communities Arguments can be made anywhere we want them to be made. We can look at some of these arguments that we are making by examining the communities we use to make them in. Perceived in terms of context, argument is discussed in terms of the “audience” to whom it is addressed or in terms of the “community,” “field” or “sphere” in which it takes place. (McKerrow, p.27) By looking at a professional sports event I will address the audience and the community to explain the argument that is taking place....   [tags: Papers] 990 words
(2.8 pages)
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Argument Evaluation - By reading the articles, the debate questions addressed by both arguments are about the poly changes in national securities or homeland securities after the terrorist attack on Sept 11, 2001. The tragedy made all Americans afraid of their safety in flying an airplane and made them felt miserable when their friends had died on the attacked. It is very important that the US need to take measures to improve homeland securities to eliminate any possibilities from terrorist attack (terrorist threat) again....   [tags: essays research papers] 860 words
(2.5 pages)
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Euthanasia Argument - Euthanasia Argument Across the world there are many different laws dealing with the taking of another human's life. For instance powerful nations like America, China and Turkey all frequently impose the death penalty. The later two countries are condemned for this. No western governments speak out against America because of the U.S economic influence on us in Europe. Citizens of these countries tend to agree with these laws although their faiths are against it. The Christian churches worldwide teach that it is never acceptable to take another person's life in the following essay I will try to argue both points of view....   [tags: Free Essay Writer] 781 words
(2.2 pages)
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Crito's Argument - The purpose of &quot;Crito&quot; seems intended to exhibit the character of Socrates in one light only, not as the philosopher, fulfilling a divine mission and trusting in the will of Heaven, but simply as the good citizen, who, having been unjustly condemned is willing to give up his life in obedience to the laws of the State. The main argument that seems to entail the discussion between Crito and Socrates is the opinion of the majority on Socrates’ fate. In the &quot;Crito&quot; Socrates states, &quot;Why should we care so much for what the majority think?&quot; (Plato 45) Socrates believes that we should not care what the majority thinks because those who are rea...   [tags: essays research papers] 1381 words
(3.9 pages)
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Researched Argument - Researched Argument It seems that from the beginning of time, music has been an important part of people’s lives. However, today, it seems that the number of people who advocate the everlasting presence of music is dwindling, and the number of people only concerned with economic stability and the core curriculum in schools is rising. Budgets in schools are being cut, and the music programs are usually at the beginning of the list when a particular area is to be disbanded. Action is being taken against the loss of music education in schools, and the people fighting to save and rejuvenate this precious resource have established many strong arguments....   [tags: Papers] 1131 words
(3.2 pages)
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The Ontological Argument Presented by Descartes and the Cosmological Argument Presented by Aquinas - The Ontological Argument Presented by Descartes and the Cosmological Argument Presented by Aquinas Descartes, often called the father of modern philosophy, developed Anselm’s argument, in attempting to prove God’s existence from simply the meaning of the word ‘God’. The ontological argument is a priori argument, such arguments use logic to prove an initial definition to be correct. The basis of these arguments depends upon one’s understanding of the nature of God. Anselm’s definition of God being “a supremely perfect being”, is the basis of his argument....   [tags: Papers] 965 words
(2.8 pages)
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Process Essay - How to Win an Argument - Process Essay - How to Win an Argument To win an argument one must keep in mind the following factors: Is the argument worth fighting. Do you have the proper background to win the argument. Who is your opponent. And finally, do I have the proper argumentative behavior. Before getting involved in an argument, you must decide whether or not it is even worth fighting. Does the subject at hand have any interest to you, does it make a difference if you win or lose. An argument about Jackie Gleson's weight at death, or the amount of torque output in a 1976 Ford Pinto, probably doesn't make much difference to anyone and isn't very interesting....   [tags: Expository Process Essays] 868 words
(2.5 pages)
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Vaid’s Liberal Argument - Vaid’s Liberal Argument Andrew Sullivan and Urvashi Vaid are two of the most prolific advocates of homosexual equality. Urvashi Vaid's book, Virtual Equality, argues that homosexuals are living as if they are equal to heterosexuals when in fact homosexuals are still treated unfairly and need to seek true liberation. Sullivan's book, Virtually Normal, examines several different political groups and their differing beliefs concerning how society should deal with homosexuality. The arguments expressed in Vaid's book suggest that Sullivan would categorize her into chapter four of Virtually Normal, entitled, “The Liberals.” It becomes evident that Vaid is neither a Prohibitionist, Liberationist,...   [tags: Research Papers]
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1778 words
(5.1 pages)
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McTaggart's Argument Evaluation - McTaggart's Argument Evaluation McTaggart takes a bold step in trying to disprove the existence of a phenomenon as taken for granted and unquestioned as breathing when he tackles the issue of time. If for no other reason, this quest is extremely daring in its scope, because he chooses to question an entity whose reality has probably never crossed most people’s minds.      McTaggart’s goal in his paper is, on a large scale, to prove that time does not exist. We will, however, be tackling the aspect of time known as the A-Series in this essay....   [tags: McTaggart Time Existence Essays] 1166 words
(3.3 pages)
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An Argument for Abortion - Pro-Abortion over Pro-life An unborn child doesn’t have a soul A sixteen year old walks down a nameless back alley on the mainland, one of only a million others, and she carries with her an unborn child of 4 months. She had tried to hide it but the signs were finally showing, “Who was the father” were the cries and pleas of those whom she loved. She was raped a year ago by her ex-boyfriend and now carries their unwanted child. Should she be forced to carry and care for the child she hadn’t planned for....   [tags: essays research papers] 599 words
(1.7 pages)
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The Strength of the Teological Argument due to Science - The Strength of the Teological Argument due to Science Science does give us more and more information about the universe, but it doesn’t believe in God or god as the designer of the universe as there is no scientific evidence for the existent of God. But learning more about the universe does show us that there is an order in the universe, which strengthens the teological argument. The Design argument is a theory based on the idea that everything in the Universe is ordered. It is also known as the Teological argument, derived from the Greek word "telos" meaning "end" or "purpose." The basic and fundamental proposal of the design argument is that because of the appa...   [tags: Papers] 1254 words
(3.6 pages)
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Anselms Ontological Argument - As a theologian and philosopher, Saint Anselm strove to prove the existence of God in reality. The bulk of his argument is found in Chapter II of Proslogium. Anselm begins by defining God as &#8220;a being than which nothing greater can be conceived';. He continues by stating that &#8220;even a fool'; has the capacity to understand this definition of God and that whatever is understood exists in the understanding. Anselm now draws his first intermediate inference based on these initial premises; God must exist in the understanding, and is therefore a possible being....   [tags: essays research papers] 665 words
(1.9 pages)
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Capital Punishment Argument - Capital Punishment Argument In this philosophical study of applied ethics the concept of punishment will be argued using philosophers such as Mill, Bentham and Kant. And the case of John Martin Scripps ‘The tourist from hell’ will be used. The concept of capital punishment as a form of punishment brings about questions such as ‘is there any crime so bad that it permits the state to kill. Does anyone deserve to die for his or her crime. Is the execution a sign that society has failed its responsibilities to all its citizens....   [tags: Papers] 2110 words
(6 pages)
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Descartes' Wax Argument - The purpose of the wax argument is designed to provide a clear and distinct knowledge of “I”, which is the mind, while corporeal things, “whose images are framed by thought, and which the senses themselves imagine are much more distinctly known than this mysterious ‘I’ which does not fall within the imagination” (66). Through the wax argument, Descartes’ demonstrates that corporeal things are perceived neither through our senses nor imagination, but through our intellect alone. In this argument, you will see that there is cause to doubt Descartes’ analysis of the wax and his method of philosophical reasoning....   [tags: Descartes Meditations] 1444 words
(4.1 pages)
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The Argument Essay: Just Don't Do It! - The Argument Paper: Just Don't Do It.   English 101 is incredibly challenging and overwhelming to the typical college student. A narrative reflective essay, an expository essay, a novel, and the Nelson-Denny Reading Comprehension test are all crammed into ten weeks of backbreaking work. However, the most intolerable assignment of all has not even been mentioned yet: the argument paper. Students run around shrieking and cursing when they are handed the assignment. Most of them are enveloped by insanity during the writing process....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Topics] 607 words
(1.7 pages)
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Kant's Categorical Argument - Kant's Categorical Argument Emanuel Kant was a German Philosopher who lived in the late 18th century and was arguably one of the greatest thinkers of all time. He came up with a guide to morals in direct opposition to the ontological theory. Many people use his ethics as a guide to living a moral life. The topic I shall be discussing is Kant's categorical imperative and the utilitarian's greatest happiness idea. There are significant problems with both ideas. It is apparent however, that alternatives to these two conflicting schools of thought have been offered....   [tags: Papers] 1063 words
(3 pages)
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Ethos, Pathos, and Logos - Strength of Argument: Ethos, Pathos, and Logos bell hooks’s essay, "Keeping Close to Home", uses three important components of argument (ethos, pathos, and logos) to support her claim. hooks develops her essay by establishing credibility with her audience, appealing to the reader’s logic, and stirring their emotions. She questions the role a university should play in the life of a nation, claiming that higher education should not tear a student away from his roots, but help him to build an education upon his background....   [tags: Argument] 831 words
(2.4 pages)
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Erin's Causal Argument - Erin's Causal Argument "Nothing meant more to people who went West in the 1840's and 1850's than mail from home." - National Park Service Pony Express Historic Trail Brochure People moved West for many reasons: the prospect of a new beginning, free land, even Gold. Leaving family behind was a hardship that many settlers dealt with. And at this time, the only way to communicate with those left behind was to write letters. Moving was, and still is, a very traumatic process. Picking up and moving everything you own and leaving behind everything familiar – it was a very trying experience....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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1023 words
(2.9 pages)
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Gun Control Argument - Gun Control Argument I would consider myself to be a conservative, although I do share a few liberal beliefs. I am a very firm believer in a free market economy. Where the invisible hand of competition keeps business in check. I believe that this type of business benefits the consumer by keeping prices low and quality high. I also think that some monopolies are beneficial to us. Microsoft for example, has a superior product in which consumers have chosen make it a monopoly. The government should not be able to break up this company, unless it is proven that they are mistreating the consumer....   [tags: Second Amendment The Right To Bear Arms] 598 words
(1.7 pages)
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René Descartes' Argument on the Existence of God - René Descartes' Argument on the Existence of God The problem with René Descartes' argument about the existence of God has to do with his rationalist deductive reasoning. Descartes deduces that truth about the existence of God lies within his idea of a perfect God and God's essence (as a perfect being who must exist in order to be perfect). A rationalist philosopher, Descartes discounts human knowledge as a product of our sensory data (our senses) but supports the epistemological stance that our knowledge is obtained through the reasoning processes of our own minds....   [tags: Philosophy God Existence Religion Essays]
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1537 words
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Descartes' Trademark Argument for God's Existence - Descartes' Trademark Argument for God's Existence The trademark argument (also known as the causal argument) tries to prove Gods existence through the fact that we have an idea of him. This argument rests on Descartes' definition of cause and effect, which he considers a priori. This idea, that God is an infinite being, he reasons is innate left on our brain as his stamp or trademark much like a potter leaves on his pots. "God, at my creation, implanted this idea in me, that it might serve, as it were, for the mark of the workman impressed on his work" This idea of infinity must be innate because a finite thing like a human cannot come up with the idea of something...   [tags: Papers] 749 words
(2.1 pages)
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The Argument Against the National Minimum Wage - The national minimum wage was introduced in the UK in April 1999 by the Labour government. Essentially it formed a major part of their manifesto as it convinced the average population that Labour were beneficial for everybody. However, they would argue against classical economics and suggest there are wide spread benefits to be gained. The main argument is that the NMW would alleviate poverty across the country. This is an equity issue that has constantly concerned society and would go some way to redistribution of income....   [tags: Argumentative Essays, Persuasive Essays] 877 words
(2.5 pages)
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The Argument on the Legalization of Same Sex Marriages - The Argument on the Legalization of Same Sex Marriages The argument over the legalization of same sex marriages is rapidly becoming one of the most vigorously advocated reform subjects in recent law review. Being gay and loving someone is not illegal, but uniting that couple in a legal marriage is rejected by most of society in this country. Each state has had to deal with legal issues concerning same sex marriages to some extent. Most supporters of the ban on gay marriages believe that it would be a strong cause of immorality and corruption of the American family....   [tags: Papers Persuasive Gay Marriage Essays]
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1467 words
(4.2 pages)
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Argument of Alfarabi’s Book of Religion - Argument of Alfarabi’s Book of Religion For this paper I reviewed four works by the philosopher Abu Nasr al-Farabi (864-933d ce). These were the Enumeration of the Sciences, the Book of Religion, Selected Aphorisms, andthe Attainment of Happiness. Three of these were new translations by Ch. E. Butterworth, the fourth Attainment of Happiness: is from the anthology Medieval Political Philosophy edited by Ralph Lerner and Muhsin Mahdi, the latter being the translator of the piece. The assignment calls for an analysis of one of the above works....   [tags: ] 4890 words
(14 pages)
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Gaia: Argument over a single word - Gaia: Argument over a single word THESIS: Life on earth has been considered by some as a purposeful interaction tending toward ecological stability. However, when the scientific community led by James Lovelock tried to match this concept with science, it was (and continues to be) a dilemma. Introduction Whenever one hears the word Gaia, he or she will also hear life, goddess, purpose, ecology, and undoubtedly controversy. Not many topics have provoked more controversy among the scientific community than the idea that the atmosphere, biosphere, and its living organisms behave as a single system, striving to maintain a stability that is conducive to the existence of life—the so-called Gaia...   [tags: Essays Papers]
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2075 words
(5.9 pages)
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Argument Against a National Identification System - Argument Against a National Identification System The concept of a national ID card has been debated in the United States for over three decades. In the past, the opposition as well as its allies has been strong. As a result of the September 11th terrorist attacks there has been new interest in the concept of national ID cards. While this idea is not all a new, it is closer to becoming more of a reality than ever, gaining the approval by the key members of congress. Currently the Bush Administration objects this renewed idea, however due to the intense emotion from the recent terrorist attacks the nation is closer to the idea than ever before....   [tags: ID Identification Argumentative Essays]
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1327 words
(3.8 pages)
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Argument for Making Hemp Growth Legal - Argument for Making Hemp Growth Legal There is vast history of hemp as an agricultural crop in the United States. The crop was grown extensively until its ban in 1937. Prior to the ban on hemp the plant was one of the biggest cash crops of the Southern United States. For instance in Kentucky hemp was the biggest cash crop up until 1915. In these southern states hemp was used as a rotation crop between tobacco crops as well as other crops. Thomas Jefferson even wrote in his own writings that, “Hemp is of first necessity to the wealth and protection of the country.” Jefferson's theories can offer thought on the hemp ban being lifted during World War II because the crop was needed f...   [tags: Argumentative Persusaive Hemp Essays Papers]
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976 words
(2.8 pages)
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John Searle's Chinese Room Argument - John Searle's Chinese Room Argument The purpose of this paper is to present John Searle’s Chinese room argument in which it challenges the notions of the computational paradigm, specifically the ability of intentionality. Then I will outline two of the commentaries following, the first by Bruce Bridgeman, which is in opposition to Searle and uses the super robot to exemplify his point. Then I will discuss John Eccles’ response, which entails a general agreement with Searle with a few objections to definitions and comparisons....   [tags: Papers] 1990 words
(5.7 pages)
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Television and Media Essay - Four Arguments for the Elimination of TV - Four Arguments for the Elimination of Television Television technology has been a controversial issue since its debut in the early 1940s. In order to fully understand any controversial issue, one must be presented with both the pro and the con sides of the issue. One must understand and be able to argue both sides of the issue in order to become a successful and well-educated person. Being a member of the pro-technological society, one is well educated on the pro side of this issue....   [tags: Media Argumentative Persuasive Argument] 2657 words
(7.6 pages)
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Dynamics of History as Argument for Biblical Theology - In this point we explore how Edwards related the dynamics of history, location and time, as arguments for Biblical Theology or for his Work of Redemption. Edwards believed that redemption is inextricable from history and vice versa. However it would take him many years to develop this connection into a coherent philosophy and theology of salvation history. Edwards faced the acute problem how to demonstrate God’s sovereignty and redemptive activity in an evolving age. In this respect it was difficult to reconstruct the series temporum (stages of time) from God’s redemptive plan....   [tags: theology]
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1830 words
(5.2 pages)
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Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Argument for the Existence of God Based on Religious Experience - A religious experience is an event which brings about an encounter between God and the experient. It is a communication between God and the individual which brings about an overwhelming awareness of God. As a result, the experient may undergo a conversion, may believe they have received a revelation or feel called to fulfil a divine commission or spiritual responsibility. But a question that would arise is whether there are strong grounds that suggest that such experiences prove the existence of God....   [tags: theology, religion] 684 words
(2 pages)
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Frankenstein's Origin: Assessing Thompson's Argument for the Creature's Literary Ancestors - The greatest modern stories often hail from ancient myths, and Mary Shelley's novel, Frankenstein, proves no exception to this claim. Replete with references to John Milton's Paradise Lost and the ancient Greek myth of Prometheus, the story of Frankenstein seems, in many ways, very much like the Creature himself—which is to say, cobbled together from various scraps of previously existing parts. Terry W. Thompson, however, argues convincingly that scholars continue to ignore one of Frankenstein's most influential literary antecedents: the Greek hero known as Hercules (Thompson 36)....   [tags: Literary Analysis]
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1434 words
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Analyze an argument Stanley Fish: Save the world on your own time - Higher educational systems allow students to adapt more to both theoretical and practical knowledge. Universities around the world offer programs of different criteria for their students. Civic engagement programs allow students to become a part of their community, which improves students’ social and moral experiences. Students who are civically engaged develop a series of skills apart from their education. Stanley Fish, an American literary theorist and a public intellectual writes and argues about the progression of education....   [tags: literary analysis, civic engagement]
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1513 words
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No “More” Socialism: Debunking Raphael Hythlodaeus’ Argument Against Private Property - George Orwell, in his famous essay, “Why Socialists Don’t Believe in Fun,” aptly described the problem of any Utopian ideal. “It would seem that human beings are not able to describe, nor perhaps to imagine, happiness except in terms of contrast… Nearly all creators of Utopia have resembled the man who has (a) toothache, and therefore thinks happiness consists in not having a toothache. They wanted to produce a perfect society by an endless continuation of something that had only been valuable because it was temporary” (Orwell)....   [tags: Philosophy]
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1982 words
(5.7 pages)
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Kripke’s Modal Argument Against Type Identity Theories - Type identity theories are mainly concerned with the premise that the brain and the mind are identical and discuss mental states and reduce them to the physical. Saul Kripke made some influential criticisms to type identity theory. Kripke’s criticisms rely on views about essentialism, modality and possible world semantics, (Hanks) Kripke’s argument is directed at the thesis from Identity theory that each physical state is identical to an undifferentiated mental state, Kripke relies upon the concept of a rigid designator, and the necessity of this rigid designator to disprove statements of identity....   [tags: Saul Kripke, physical state, mental state, brain]
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1889 words
(5.4 pages)
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Does Aristotle’s Function Argument Offer a Convincing Account of the Human Good? - The Nicomachean Ethics, written by Aristotle, represents his most important contribution within the field of Ethics; it is a collection of ten books, covering a variety of interesting topics, throughout the collection. Aristotle tries to draw a general understanding of the human good, exploring the causes of human actions, trying to identify the most common ultimate purpose of human actions. Indeed, Aristotelian’s ethics, also investigates through the psychological and the spiritual realms of human beings....   [tags: philosophy, ethics, eudaimonia]
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1843 words
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Key Features of the Design Argument for the Existence of God - Key Features of the Design Argument for the Existence of God Design arguments seek to move from facts about the world to the existence of God. As such they are inductive, a posteriori arguments. The Design argument is actually a broad title under which a number of arguments fall. Swinburne in his book 'The Existence of God' suggests three different groupings of these arguments. There are Teleological arguments which argue from what is seen as a general pattern of order in the Universe....   [tags: Papers] 1385 words
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The Success of the Kalam Cosmological Argument in Establishing an Existence in God - The Success of the Kalam Cosmological Argument in Establishing an Existence in God The kalam cosmological argument is an argument from the existence of the world or universe- to the existence of God, I think this is effective because the existence of the universe, such arguments claim, stands in need of explanation, the only adequate explanation, the arguments suggest, is that it was created by God. This is because it says that everything that has a beginning of its existence has a cause of its existence and the universe has a beginning of it’s existence; so it must have a cause to exist, and this cause is God, therefore God exists....   [tags: Papers] 531 words
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Key Features of the Cosmological Argument for the Existence of God - Key Features of the Cosmological Argument for the Existence of God The word Cosmological argument comes from the word cosmos, which refers to the world or universe as a well-organized and perfect system. The cosmological argument is a classic argument, which tries to prove the existence of God, and this argument is based on the fact that the world’s existence needs to be explained. The cosmological argument is an argument that starts from the existence of the universe, to try and prove that God exists....   [tags: Papers] 561 words
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Exploring the Possibility of Updating the Cosmological Argument for the Existence of God - Exploring the Possibility of Updating the Cosmological Argument for the Existence of God The term cosmological comes from the Greek language, meaning ‘world’ or ‘universe.’ The argument is based on facts about the world. The topic of cosmology refers to the study of the universe. The cosmological argument begins with a general claim about the physical universe e.g. that some events have causes and that there must be a supernatural agent to somehow explain this fact. The argument seems to say that there cannot be an infinite series of causes, they have to stop somewhere....   [tags: Papers] 903 words
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The Motionless Arrow: Aristotles Thoughts On Zenos Arror Argument - The Motionless Arrow: Aristotle's Thoughts on Zeno's Arror Argument Aristotle's thoughts on Zeno's Arrow Argument as represented in Chapter 9 of Aristotle's Physics: A Guided Study can be understood in such a way that it might not be "next door to madness". In this chapter, Aristotle interprets Zeno's argument of the Flying Arrow as "missing the mark". There are four premises for this argument, and in Aristotle's opinion, premise three can be rejected. He does not believe that time is composed of indivisible nows, which he proves with laws of science....   [tags: essays research papers] 935 words
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The Various Forms of the Cosmological Argument for the Existence of God - The Various Forms of the Cosmological Argument for the Existence of God The cosmological argument is a well established argument for the existence of God and it is also known as the first cause argument. The cosmological argument is based upon the belief that there is a first cause behind the existence of universe and this was God. It has taken many forms and in the past has been presented in many ways. So many philosophers have put their points across, philosophers like; Plato, Aquinas, Socrates, Hume, Kant and many more....   [tags: Papers] 1552 words
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A Conservative Argument against Stem Cell Research - A Conservative Argument against Stem Cell Research For the past few years stem cell research has been a widely debated topic; however, former President Clinton?s stance?allowing federal money to be spent on tightly controlled stem cell research?lead to intense debates over federal funding for stem cell research. There are four ways of obtaining stem cells, which are taken from embryos that are approximately one week old. They are using unwanted embryos from fertility clinics, embryos from aborted fetuses, cloned embryos, and embryos created for research purposes....   [tags: Stem Cell Research Essays Papers]
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1166 words
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The Key Ideas of the Cosmological Argument for the Creation of God - The Key Ideas of the Cosmological Argument for the Creation of God There are three key ideas in the cosmological argument each view is written by a different philosopher and has a different view of the reasons for existence. Lets have a look at the different views. Thomas Aquinas was one of the greatest theologians the world had ever seen. He believed that Aristotle’s philosophy was a better foundation of Christianity than Plato’s theories were. Aquinas believed that to prove gods existence people only had to look at the world around them, the world couldn’t exist, as it is if there wasn’t an ultimate force behind it all; this force is called god....   [tags: Papers] 854 words
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The Strengths and Weaknesses of the Cosmological Argument for the Existence of God - The Strengths and Weaknesses of the Cosmological Argument for the Existence of God The cosmological argument seeks to prove the existence of God by looking at the universe. It is an A posteriori proof based on experience and the observation of the world not logic so the outcome is probable or possible not definite. The argument is in three forms; motion, causation and being. These are also the first three ways in the five ways presented by Aquinas through which he believed the existence of God could be shown....   [tags: Philosophy Religion] 800 words
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Shedding a Different Spotlight on the Argument from Design - Shedding a Different Spotlight on the Argument from Design "Author is to book, as painter is to __________." Anyone who has taken the SAT is familiar with analogies similar to this one. The significance of analogies relies on the fact that analogies not only tell us about the meaning of words, but they tell us about the relationships of the world. In discussing our world, a well-known, much-debated topic has been the existence of God. Many arguments have been presented on both sides of this issue, the teleological argument (the argument from design) is one of the most discussed....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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3330 words
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The Major Features of the Ontological Argument for the Existence of God - The Major Features of the Ontological Argument for the Existence of God The ontological argument for the existence of God was originally set out in eleventh century by St. Anselm in his Proslogian. Anselm was a Benedictine monk, Archbishop of Canterbury, and one of the great medieval theologians. It has received a lot of both support and criticism from leaning philosophers. The argument is appeals to those who already believe in the existence of God than to an atheist. The argument is entirely a priori; it seeks to demonstrate that God exists on the basis of that concept alone, and show existence as an attribute/characteristic of God, in the same way omnipotence a...   [tags: Papers] 1019 words
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Teaching Argument Evaluation in An Introductory Philosophy Course - Teaching Argument Evaluation in An Introductory Philosophy Course ABSTRACT: One of the greatest challenges in teaching an introductory philosophy course is convincing students that there are, indeed, reliable standards for the evaluation of arguments. Too often introductory students criticize an argument simply by contesting the truth of one of its claims. And far too often, the only claim in an argument that meets serious objections is its conclusion. For many students, the idea that an argument displays a structure which can be evaluated on its own terms is not very difficult to grasp....   [tags: Education Teacher Learning Essays] 3643 words
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The Reasons Why Some Thinkers Rejected the Cosmological Argument - The Reasons Why Some Thinkers Rejected the Cosmological Argument Aquinas’s argument was as follows: If the universe was infinite, it would have an infinite number of days. The end of an infinite series of days can never be reached, so today would never arrive. However, today has arrived, so the past cannot be infinite. Time began when the universe began, which was an event. Events are caused; therefore there must have been a first cause. This first cause was God. Tennant said there are things in the world which are contingent....   [tags: Papers] 578 words
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Organization is Crucial When Making a Sound Argument - Organization is Crucial When Making a Sound Argument The development of animal rights organizations in the past century has made hunting a heated topic for debate. Modernization has left the primitive form of hunting and gathering behind as an obsolete form of human survival. With this occurrence one would think that hunting would lose its popularity, but this statement couldn’t be farther from the truth. It has developed more as a sport and participation is still widespread throughout the United States....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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1108 words
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The Adequacy of the Moral Argument for Explaining the Existence of God - The Adequacy of the Moral Argument for Explaining the Existence of God The moral argument like many arguments for the existence of God comes in many different forms. All of these set out to prove God’s existence from the evidence of morality in the world. Morality is about understanding the difference between the right and wrong action in a situation, the moral person has this understanding and then acts appropriately. The moral arguments first problem or flaw is that it assumes and works on the principle that the majority of people have some experience of morality....   [tags: Papers] 556 words
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Descartes Skeptical Argument And Reponses By Bouwsma And Malcolm - Descartes' Skeptical Argument and Reponses by Bouwsma and Malcolm In this essay, I will examine Rene Descartes' skeptical argument and responses by O.K. Bouwsma and Norman Malcolm. I intend to prove that while both Bouwsma and Malcolm make points that refute specific parts of Descartes' argument in their criticisms, neither is sufficient in itself to refute the whole. In order to understand Descartes' argument and its sometimes radical ideas, one must have at least a general idea of his motives in undertaking the argument....   [tags: essays research papers] 2359 words
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The Key Ideas of the Cosmological Argument for the Existence of God - The Key Ideas of the Cosmological Argument for the Existence of God A) The cosmological argument is to prove the existence of god. In this type of argument we are looking at cause and not design. This type of argument is an aposteriori argument because it is based upon experience. Thomas Aquinas puts the key ideas into 3 ways. First way is, motion/change. Nothing can move by itself or change itself. The first thing to have moved must have been moved by something else and that thing therefore must be God....   [tags: Papers] 1057 words
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Response to Clarence Darrow's Argument in the Henry Sweet Case - Response to Clarence Darrow's Argument in the Henry Sweet Case In responding to Clarence Darrow's arguments in the Henry Sweet case and in the Leopold and Loeb case, there are some considerations that would have to be addressed in the same manner in both cases. The cases however, differ in many ways that would result in very different responses to the cases. An advocate opposing Darrow would face two factors described above. First, simply opposing Darrow creates some necessary response by the advocate, covered by those arguments that remain constant in the two cases....   [tags: Papers] 1787 words
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Key Concepts of Religious Experience as an Argument for the Existence of God - Key Concepts of Religious Experience as an Argument for the Existence of God The argument is of an 'a posterioi' nature, therefore it is inductive. This means the argument uses data and evidence from which conclusions are drawn. The argument of experience must involve a sense of encounter, the experience of the encounter therefore has been seen, felt and sensed and therefore making the experience exist to us (Hume). These experiences seem to be widespread throughout society and therefore can be claimed to be a normal occurrence....   [tags: Papers] 697 words
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A Non-Pacifist Argument Against Capital Punishment - A Non-Pacifist Argument Against Capital Punishment ABSTRACT: In this paper I present a moral argument against capital punishment that does not depend upon the claim that all killing is immoral. The argument is directed primarily against non-philosophers in the Judeo-Christian tradition. Oddly, the moral argument against capital punishment has not been effective in the United States despite the biblical injunction against killing. Religious supporters of the death penalty often invoke a presumed distinction between ‘killing’ and ‘murdering’ and avow that God forbade the latter but not the former....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Papers]
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Argument Supporting Increased Gun Control in the United States - According to the Coalition for Gun Control, last year a total of 291 people were killed by handguns in Australia, Sweden, Great Britain, Japan, and Switzerland. In the United States more than 24,000 people will be killed by the end of this year. So what is the big difference between the U.S. and these other countries. In these other countries it nearly impossible to buy any kind of gun. In these countries there are no gun shows. In these countries you can’t buy a gun at a pawnshop or your local Wal-Mart....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Essays] 769 words
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Argument and Parody in T.S. Eliot's Four Quartets - The Seduction of Argument and the Danger of Parody in T.S. Eliot's Four Quartets Though its more lyrical passages present detailed and evocative imagery, substantial portions of T.S. Eliot's Four Quartets afford no such easy approach. Since the initial appearance of "Burnt Norton" it has been a critical commonplace to regard these portions of the text as at once its most conceptually profound and its most formally prosaic. Of course, the Quartets offer enough cues toward this critical attitude that it may fairly be said to reside within the poem at least as much as it is imposed from without....   [tags: T.S. Eliot Four Quartets]
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6609 words
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Analysis of The Inquisitor's Argument in Dostoevsky's The Brothers Karamazov - Analysis of The Inquisitor's Argument in The Brothers Karamazov      Dostoevsky makes a strong case against Jesus in "The Grand Inquisitor": Jesus did not love humanity sufficiently to care for the greater good of the race.   The majority of people, according to the Grand Inquisitor, are weak and "like sheep." Jesus prized freedom of faith above all else, and because he cared more for that freedom than for the happiness of people, the Grand Inquisitor and the Catholic Church, as led by he Inquisitor, reject Jesus....   [tags: Brothers Karamazov Essays]
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An Argument Against High Salaries in Major League Baseball - An Argument Against High Salaries in Major League Baseball Twenty-five million dollars made per year. Over one hundred fifty-four thousand dollars made per game. Over forty-seven thousand dollars earned per at bat. Sounds a little ridiculous, does it not. That is what current Texas Ranger shortstop Alex Rodriguez earns to play the game of baseball (azcentral.com). Baseball is a game that children have been playing in schoolyards and fields for the past one hundred years. It may not be a game anymore....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive]
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Visual Hallucinations: Another Argument for Brain Equals Behavior - Visual Hallucinations: Another Argument for Brain Equals Behavior A hallucination is defined as a sensory perception in the absence of an externally generated stimulus (4). They are different from illusions in that in an illusion an external object actually exists and is perceived, but is misinterpreted by the individual (4). Main forms of hallucinations are be visual, auditory, and olfactory, but since we have been discussing vision and interpretation of reality lately this paper will focus only on those that are visual....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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