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Your search returned over 400 essays for "Finance"
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Independent Retirement Account - Independent Retirement Account (IRA) All living beings grow old with time and come to a stage when they can no longer make a living on their own. Be it animals or humans, it is a time when they have to depend on others for their survival. Yes, as human beings, there comes a time in our lives when we can no longer afford to live independently and have to make way for younger and much healthier individuals at work. So what does one do to earn a living. There are quite a few possibilities of which Independent Retirement Account, or IRA as it is known in short is quite popular with Americans....   [tags: Finance ] 1193 words
(3.4 pages)
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International Financial Institutions - America has had a long history of aiding countries in need, advancing development and promoting democracy all over the world often working with international financial institutions to achieve these various goals. Institutions that collaborate with the U.S. such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) have long played an integral part in international development goals over the past 60 years. The way in which assistance was distributed greatly changed during the 1940s after WWII and continues to be a major force in internationals relations....   [tags: Finance]
:: 14 Works Cited
2244 words
(6.4 pages)
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Trade Options Online - Options are the right to buy or sell a defined number of stocks at a predetermined price. The practice of online options trading is not something to be approached without some degree of knowledge. There are two types of options calls and puts. Both types can be bought or sold, and your decision as to what you do with them is based on your goals as an investor.1 How to Option Trade Learning option trading is by far the first thing which needs to be accomplished when making the important decision to add this type of activity to your portfolio....   [tags: Finance ]
:: 7 Works Cited
950 words
(2.7 pages)
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Forestry Investment Paper - Investment   Investment Introduction Forestry investment can be said to be a very unique investment option as compared to other existing money markets. Timber investment for example is most evident in the long investment period of growth. Southern pine for example would require a length of between 45 to 60 years from the time of seed to harvest (Siegel, 1996).Eastern hard woods may take a longer period of between 60 to 80 years before it produces some quality saw timber products. However, the investment horizon can be shortened to about 25 to 35 years where planted Southern pine has intensive management....   [tags: Finance ]
:: 3 Works Cited
1668 words
(4.8 pages)
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Related Party Transactions - PART A Related party transactions (RPTs) are transfers of resources, services or obligations between an entity and related parties: members of the same group, associates or joint ventures (AASB 124, paragraph 9). RPTs are the synergies within different parts of the conglomerate, and thereby, lead to healthy cost efficiencies and profit maximization of the group. For parents, RPTs help them improve risk management and effective control to subsidiaries (Basel, 1999). RPTs can be carried out on the base of relationships between parties through the presence of control, joint control or significant influence (AASB 124, paragraph 5)....   [tags: Finance]
:: 5 Works Cited
1159 words
(3.3 pages)
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Stock Market Predictability - I will now examine the effectiveness of the Book to Market ratio in predicting stock market returns. The Book to Market ratio is used to compare the book value and the market value of the firm. The book value is calculated by the firm’s accounting worth. The market value is determined by the market capitalization in the stock market. It is then found using the formula, Book Value of the firm / Market Value of the firm. Its purpose is to identify any securities that may be undervalued or overvalued....   [tags: Finance]
:: 7 Works Cited
908 words
(2.6 pages)
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Financial Capital Structure - Contents : Introduction on Capital Structure Summary and Evaluation of Articles Conclusion References/Bibliography Introduction On Capital Structure :- In the field of finance capital structure means a way an organization or firms finances their assets by the way of some mix and match of Equity, Debt or Hybrid Securities. The modern thinking on capital structure is based on the Modigliani-Miller theorem given by Franco Modigliani and Merton Miller. The theorem suggests that in a perfect market the total value of the company remains the same depending upon how is that company financed....   [tags: Business Finance] 1550 words
(4.4 pages)
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Separation Of Duties - Separation of Duties Separation of Duties is a term defined as “a security principle that says no one person should be able to effect a breach of security” (Definition of: separation of duties, 2008). What this means, is that one person should not be, on the whole, responsible for both the design and implementation of security within an organization. The goal being that there is not one single point of failure where one person can subsequently take advantage of a process inside a company and benefit from ill-gotten gains....   [tags: Business Finance] 910 words
(2.6 pages)
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Debt Equity Mix - Determining the Debt-Equity Mix The Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) is an essential percentage used in determining a suitable debt-equity mixture within a firm's capital structure. El Café, a fictitious business, was used in a simulation as a primary example for determining feasible methods of financing for proposed franchise expansions. El Café was faced with three major decisions in which the WACC was used as a benchmark to select the most appropriate form of financing based on the company's existing capital structure....   [tags: Business Finance] 895 words
(2.6 pages)
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Long Term Fiancing - Introduction Long-term financing strategies help ensure that the money invested today will earn more than or equal to the amount invested. The capital asset pricing model (CAPM) and discounted cash flow method (DCF) will be compared. The debt and equity mix help a company optimize its wealth. The debt and equity mix will be examined along with characteristics of the financial market, and debt and equity instruments. Finally, long-term finance alternatives such as stocks, bonds, and leases are discussed....   [tags: Business Finance] 1840 words
(5.3 pages)
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Supporting Public Financed Campaigns - The government system is consequently very flawed. I want it to change, but I really never wanted to be involved in politics. I did not even really want to write about any of these topics. It is really hard learning all about these writing techniques at my age. I forgot so much and never went to college right after. I finally caught on to sentence structures my last year in high school in 1976. I did not even want to take a government class, but I am somewhat enjoying it. It has been an eye opener and a total challenge....   [tags: position paper, personal opinion]
:: 2 Works Cited
713 words
(2 pages)
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Student Financial Planning - Financial planning for a student is vital to successful completion of a college degree and ongoing success after college. The objective of this assignment is to evaluate four ways someone in my position could save money and budget. By planning finances carefully a student can avoid a pause in learning due to financial trouble and set themselves up for success after college. In the list provided below I will provide four tips I will use to navigate my way around the possible financial peril that presents itself to each student....   [tags: Personal Finance]
:: 4 Works Cited
1021 words
(2.9 pages)
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Schools and Finances - ... 525), which indicated that no ruling had ever been determined relative to what constituted a uniform system for schools. Although this case was later determined to lack sufficient evidence relative to an adequacy claim, the initiative was placed in the voter’s hands (National Education Access Network, 2011). In 1998, Florida citizens worked diligently to change constitutional language to make the education of children at its forefront (Herrington & Weider, 2001). Then in 1999, Florida ratified an accountability system that allowed schools to be graded....   [tags: public schools, private schools, school districts]
:: 11 Works Cited
1150 words
(3.3 pages)
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The Fama Critique Compared to New Research - The Fama Critique Compared to New Research 1. Introduction Over the last couple of decades there has been a debate going whether or not there are behavioral aspects in finance. This means that financial markets are subject to different investors’ sentiments and that markets are not efficient, i.e. the efficient market hypothesis (EMH) does not hold. The supporters of EMH argue that all available information is included in the stock prices, which means that any long-term abnormal returns earned are a matter of chance....   [tags: Finance Investment Market] 1712 words
(4.9 pages)
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Factors that Contribute to a Firm's Financing Choice - The financial decisions of any type of an organisation can be divided into two categories. The first of these is concerned with spending – what spending decisions should be made in order to suffice a particular organisation’s future goals, which might be expressed in terms of profits, success in competition, new product development, growth and so forth. However, in order to realise these visions, each company necessarily needs to make decisions falling into the second category which is concerned with raising money for its spending....   [tags: Business Finance Analysis] 1886 words
(5.4 pages)
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Shanghai International Settlement - Finance Capital, the novel takes place in the International Settlement of Shanghai after WWI, during the 1920’s. Within the international settlement a battle between the Chinese Communist Laborers, the European, the American, the Japanese, and the Chinese financial oligarchies rages for supremacy of Shanghai’s financial markets. The financial oligarchy according to Lenin, is the major owners of capital . Koya was a Japanese born Shanghai resident and was a member of the Forestry Division of the Muramatsu Steamship Company, a company (zaibatsu) of Japan....   [tags: lenin, shanghai's market, finance capital]
:: 3 Works Cited
877 words
(2.5 pages)
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Election Reform Amendment - Introduction: In the last election cycle, 132 Americans accounted for sixty percent of all the Super Political Action Committees’ (PACs) money (Lessig 2013). With statistics like this, it is no wonder the average American does not feel as though his or her vote is meaningful. In the scheme of the corruption of political money, it truly isn’t. In the current American way of government elections, the average citizen does not choose the candidate; he or she merely has the opportunity to decipher which best fits his or her beliefs, out of the ones suggested by the large election donors....   [tags: Campaign Finance Reform, Super PACs]
:: 18 Works Cited
3088 words
(8.8 pages)
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Astronomical Tuition Prices - Tuition increases is one of the main concerns for parents who are sending their children off to college. There have been major payment increases for every college in the past fifty to seventy-five years. Classes, semesters, years and the time it takes to get a degree have sky rocketed for every university. Most students cannot just walk out of high school and say, I have my entire college paid for there’s no sweat in slacking off and looking at university projected prices.” “However, now many, if not most, students are forced to view these costs in terms of a ‘finance model,’ which requires more planning and strategy, a longer repayment period, and the assuming of substantial debt loads Qui...   [tags: Parents, Money, Students, College, Finance]
:: 8 Works Cited
1003 words
(2.9 pages)
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Comparing Dollar General's Financial Performance with that of Family Dollar - Comparing Dollar General's Financial Performance with that of Family Dollar Dollar General has been performing well financially ever since they were established in 1955. In its first 10 years of existence, Dollar General had grown to 255 stores with nearly $26 million in annual sales. In 2002, annual sales were $6.1 billion and there were 6,300 stores in 27 states in operation. Strategy shifts as well as major acquisitions allowed for Dollar General to continue performing well financially over the years....   [tags: Business Analysis Finance] 1384 words
(4 pages)
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Why Toolbox Manufacturers Charge High Interest Rates and Mechanics Pay Them - Why do Toolbox Manufacturers Charge High Interest Rates and Mechanics are willing to pay for them. The high interest rates of toolbox financing provide benefits for the manufacturing company and the mechanics. The company increases their net income and the mechanic receives financing, convenience and the name brand. We have all been there. We walk into the garage of our mechanic’s shop, taking a quick glance; we see the huge elaborate toolboxes that each mechanic owns. Most of them are from Mac, Matco or Snap-On....   [tags: Finance Interest Mechanic Manufacturing] 876 words
(2.5 pages)
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An Overview of Nigerian Venture Capital and Private Equity - An Overview of Nigerian Venture Capital and Private Equity Executive Summary Nigeria is facing an uncertain future as outbreaks of ethnic and religious violence continue to place strains on Africa’s most populated country. With the 2003 elections approaching, the continuing battle amongst incumbent politicians and between competing ethnic and regional groups is likely to intensify. Such an environment will test Nigeria’s fragile democracy, which has never witnessed a hand over from one civilian government to another....   [tags: Nigeria Finance Venture Capital] 1803 words
(5.2 pages)
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Legislation and Predatory Lending in the Mortgage Industry - Legislation and Predatory Lending in the Mortgage Industry The American Dream has been one of this nation's most enduring ideals of the past half-century. Presumably, every young couple, low-income family, and incoming immigrant hopes to one day produce 1.7 kids, obtain 1.3 cars, and of course purchase the house with the white picket fence. But fulfilling these goals costs money; and the aforementioned groups are among the least financially stable in the country. These people's need for extra funding has led to the extension of credit to large segments of the population who were previously deemed unqualified....   [tags: Business Finance Essays]
:: 10 Works Cited
1895 words
(5.4 pages)
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Cost Accounting: Its role and ethical considerations - Cost Accounting: Its role and ethical considerations Introduction: Accounting is the process of identifying, measuring, and communicating economic information about an entity for the purpose of making decisions and informed judgements. The major areas of within the accounting are: Financial Accounting, Managerial Accounting/Cost Accounting and Auditing- Public Accounting Managerial accounting is concerned with the use of economic and financial information to plan and control the activities of an entity and to support the management in planning and decision-making process....   [tags: Business Finance Accountant Essays]
:: 3 Works Cited
1039 words
(3 pages)
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The Examination of Financial Data for China - The Examination of Financial Data for China Introduction The purpose of the examination of China's inflation rates regarding consumer price percentage changes, exchange rates concerning the value of the yuan, and the country's interest rates relating to foreign investment is to demonstrate that Riordan Manufacturing can benefit from the growth opportunity of international expansion. The company also will be able to finance its expansion project and still make a profit. The scope of the study will include the valuation of the balance of trade between the United States and China and how changes in China's industrial production positively affect the balance of trade between the two countries...   [tags: China Finance Economics] 1743 words
(5 pages)
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Analysing Aurora Alternative Energy Ltd. Financial Statements - Analysing Aurora Alternative Energy Ltd. Financial Statements There are 4 possible ways to interpret the financial statements of Aurora Alternative Energy Ltd. This is by profitability, efficiency, liquidity, and financial gearing. The date of 31- 12- 2007 Aurora Alternative Energy Ltd statements have been provided. Profitability is the key target of any business. The profitability ratios so the success or the failure of some businesses. The ratios are there to express the profits made by a business so that on financial statements so that they compare how they are doing compared to other business and how they’ve done in the past....   [tags: Business Finance Accounting] 1736 words
(5 pages)
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Risk Analysis On Investment Decision - Risk Analysis on Investment Decision In the Capital budgeting simulation conducted for Silicon Arts Inc. my job as a the Financial Analyst is to analyze the two proposals and come to a decision that meets the goals of the company to increase its market share and to keep pace with technology. In order for Silicon Arts Inc to achieve this we need to decide on either increasing their market shares in the Digital Imaging market or enter the Wireless Communications market. In markets that constantly change in technologies Silicon Arts Inc....   [tags: Finance Business Analysis] 702 words
(2 pages)
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Inflation and Its Effects on Investment - Inflation and Its Effects on Investment For world economic markets, inflation is a fairly new experience as for much of the pre-twentieth century there had been little upward pressure on prices due to gold and other metallic standards. These backed currencies limited governments’ abilities to create new money. So at the end of the gold standard strong political pressures often caused governments to issue more money increasing the money supply and therefor the price level. Inflation reflects a situation where the demand for goods and services exceeds their supply in the economy(Hall, 1982)....   [tags: Finance Financial Economics Essays]
:: 5 Works Cited
1361 words
(3.9 pages)
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Mo' Money, Mo' Greed & Corruption - Mo' Money, Mo' Greed & Corruption The American dream: a spouse, a few children, a lucrative job, a nice home, and of course, some material luxuries. Those who are able to realize this goal have my respect and they should be proud of their accomplishments. However, my beef arises with the very few Americans who greatly surpass this dream. Yes, I mean the multi-millionaires and billionaires of America. The wealthiest one percent of our nation owns half the financial assets and 38 percent of the total wealth....   [tags: Economics Finance Papers Financial] 1800 words
(5.1 pages)
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The New Uses of Monetary Powers - The New Uses of Monetary Powers Introduction Over the past several years United States financial markets have experienced their most serious stresses and strains since the great depression of the 1930s. These stresses and strains have been due to both domestic and international developments. As a result market instruments, institutions, and usages have undergone marked changes, and the federal reserve system as well as the other agencies of the peculiarly decentralized central bank of the United States, have responded by adjusting their operations: monetary powers have been used in new ways....   [tags: Finance Regulation Business ] 1061 words
(3 pages)
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Exchange Rate Mechanisms - Currency Hedging - Exchange Rate Mechanisms Paper - Currency Hedging Exchange Rate Mechanisms Paper - Currency Hedging Currency hedging involves deliberately taking on a new risk that offsets an existing one, thereby reducing a businesses' exposure to negative change in exchange rates, interest rates, or commodity pricing (Economists.com, n.d.). "Currency hedging allows a business owner to greatly reduce or eliminate the uncertainties attached to any foreign-currency transaction" (Fraser, 2001). It is impossible to predict the how much a currency will be worth on the exact day that a company will be converting it....   [tags: Business Economics Finance] 906 words
(2.6 pages)
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The Rise And Fall Of Enron - The Rise and Fall of Enron The objective of every company is to maximize profit, become a big player and remain viable. Enron was no exception the key players at the time were Kenneth Lay CEO, Jeffery Skilling who was hired by Lay in 1990 to head the Enron Finance Corporation and by 1997 Skilling was made President and Chief Operating Officer. Andrew Fastow, CFO who was the chief financial officer of Enron. Enron merged Houston Natural Gas in 1985 with another natural gas pipeline to create Enron....   [tags: Business Accounting Finance Scandal] 848 words
(2.4 pages)
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Role of Financial Manager - When I think of a financial manager, accountant quickly comes to mind. The role of accountant and financial manager are similar in several ways and often times they work closely together on various projects. The role of an Accountant is to ensure that their organization is run efficiently, make sure their records are accurate, and that their taxes are paid properly and on time. Accountants perform a broad range of accounting, auditing, tax, and consulting activities for their clients. They record and analyze the financial information of the companies for which they work....   [tags: Accounting Finance Business Management] 667 words
(1.9 pages)
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Argentina's Complete Balance Of Payment - Case Study Objectives: • Preparation of Argentina’s complete balance of payment for the previous year and a forecast for next year. • Effects of devaluation on sales if it occurs in Argentina’s economy. • Borrowing decision feasibility for M/s Jeans USA Findings: Trade balance is in a healthy position $4.691 BN and is likely to increase Exports are $12.078 BN and are expected to increase to $13 BN which is 8% for next year. Imports are likely to be remain constant Foreign reserves are $10 BN Business prospects are excellent in Argentina BALANCE OF PAYMENTS Current Account | |$ in billions | |Expor...   [tags: Budget Finance Argentina] 1860 words
(5.3 pages)
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An Overview Of Target Costing - AN OVERVIEW OF TARGET COSTING Introduction Many managers often underestimate the power of target costing as a serious competitive tool. When general managers read the word "costing", they naturally assume it is a topic for their finance or accounting staff. They miss the fact that target costing is really a systematic profit and cost management process. What Is Target Costing. CAM-I defines target costing as the maximum amount of cost that can be incurred on a product and still earn the required profit margin from that product....   [tags: Business Accounting Finance] 1935 words
(5.5 pages)
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The Solar Feeder Case Study - The Solar Feeder Case Study Ed Welsh and Bo Haeberle discovered an idea of the solar feeder. After years of developing, the product became very successful. It even won several prizes like the best new product in the Bird Watch America trade show, the national birding convention. After this, Ed and Bo decided to sell their final product under new established company Squirrel Defense, Inc. They opened a small shop in Greensboro and begin the production of the solar feeder so they could take orders for the demanded product....   [tags: Business Management Finance Analysis] 1737 words
(5 pages)
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Rise And Fall Of Internet Banking - Would you trust your money with an electronic banking system. If you had a million dollars to move from one account into another account would you trust the click of a button or would you prefer to go into your bank and personally interface with a client service representative. These are some of the questions that people consider when their bank begins to advertise internet banking services. Although the ability to transact business and perform transactions with your bank online has been around as far back as 1998 the general public is not as enthusiastic as most bankers would like them to be....   [tags: Finance] 1529 words
(4.4 pages)
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Municipal Budgeting and Revenue - Municipal Budgeting and Revenue Introduction Every government entity has a primary goal, which is to be as efficient and effective as possible while expending the smallest amount of resources. In addition, the resources expended cannot be more than the resources received as revenues. The budgeting process is a tool that assists government entities in being both efficient and effective. Before a budget can be adequately prepared, you must first understand the budgeting concept and secondly be knowledgeable of budget types....   [tags: Budget Finance Government Essays]
:: 7 Works Cited
2489 words
(7.1 pages)
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Sale / Lease Back - Sale/Lease Back Sale/leaseback is a financing tool that became popular in the 90´s due to the tightening of the credit. This type of financing was used by small and medium companies that needed cash to grow their business but their only real estate asset was their business facility. We had two interviews with bankers that explained to us how is the deal made and what are the benefits it brings. Javier Jaramillo is a senior VP of Investments at UBS and has been a banker all his life. Although he doesn´t deal right now with this kind of financing he learned about sale/leaseback when he worked at Wachovia....   [tags: Finance Financial Bank Banking] 823 words
(2.4 pages)
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Market Composition - Over the past two decades, a panoply of behavioral finance research has been devoted to exploring the trading patterns of behavior and trading performance of individual and institutional investor categories over time and across exchanges. In fact, this intriguing research topic is of considerable interest to academic scholars and market practitioners alike, because it has great academic value and practical implications for industry. Specifically, capturing the trading pattern and investment performance of each investor group within a particular country can cast light on some worthwhile issues such as market composition, information transmission, asset price formation, and market efficiency a...   [tags: Global Finance, Investments] 1679 words
(4.8 pages)
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Portfolio Theory and Banks - Portfolio Theory and Banks Over the years competition in the financial industry has been very high. Banks have been competing harder over market shares and profits. These firms have of late been facing a very unique challenge; how to extract high levels of profit while still maintaining their foundations as lending institutions. Lending is not a very profitable business, the risk of default coupled with the competition driving down market prices have made lending a less attractive enterprise....   [tags: Finance Financial Essays] 1142 words
(3.3 pages)
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Financial Theories And Strategies - Financial Theories and Strategies Introduction Financial theories are the building blocks of today's corporate world. "The basic building blocks of finance theory lay the foundation for many modern tools used in areas such asset pricing and investment. Many of these theoretical concepts such as general equilibrium analysis, information economics and theory of contracts are firmly rooted in classical Microeconomics" (Oaktree, 2005) This paper will define and discuss five financial theories and how they impact business decisions made by financial managers....   [tags: Business Finance Strategy Analysis] 1533 words
(4.4 pages)
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The 2008 Financial Crisis - Introduction The purpose of this report is to study Global Financial Crisis 2008.This study is inspired by the Wall street crisis and it covers why’s and after effects of the crisis. After this crisis many of the roots causes were observed like speculation, fragility of the system, greed of the managers which adversely affected the market. What is financial crisis: The term financial crisis is applied broadly to a variety of situations in which some financial institutions or assets suddenly lose a large part of their value....   [tags: Finance Investment Economy] 1797 words
(5.1 pages)
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Royal Gold Financial Analysis - Introduction This paper examines certain key financial ratios for three companies’ which operate in the market of gold. Presented are analyses and comparisons of the companies for the three most recent years, 2004, 2005, 2006. The focal point of the original analysis was Royal Gold. Two other strong companies in the gold market are Newmont Mining and Barrick Gold Corporation. Royal Gold, Inc. is a Denver, Colorado based company. It is primarily in the business of buying and selling gold royalties....   [tags: Business Corporate Finance] 1876 words
(5.4 pages)
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Tax Law And Accounting - Tax Law and Accounting Income tax is a part of the fiscal policy of our economy. The first federal income tax was imposed by Congress in 1862, to finance the waging of the Civil War. The Civil War income tax was repealed in 1872, but a new income tax was enacted as part of the 1894 Tariff Act. However, the Supreme Court struck down the income tax in 1895. It ruled that the portion of the income tax that applied to income on property was a direct tax that, under the United States Constitution, could not be levied without apportioning the tax by population....   [tags: Tax Accounting Financial Finance] 1174 words
(3.4 pages)
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Financial Management, Superior Manufacturing - Warning, this is a study guide, not a cheat sheet. 1. Prepare a statement showing the incremental cash flows for this project over an 8-year period. -Initial investment: The initial investment (I) is the sum of the investment in plant and equipment. I = $1,000,000 -Working Capital: The additional net investment in inventory and receivables is the working capital needed for the project: WC = $200,000 There is no additional info about the WC, so we can assume that it will not change over the project's life....   [tags: Finance] 1417 words
(4 pages)
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Gap Analysis: Intersect Investments - Gap Analysis: Intersect Investments Since September 11, 2001, the financial service industry has been taking a beating and has been trying to staying afloat. Firms have to be one-step ahead of its competitors when comes to the service and the products offered if they want to be successful. To accomplish this and maintain credibility on Wall Street, the CEO of Intersect Investment Services recognized the need to create a vision: "Provide a broad set of products and services to consumer and small business customers using a model of customer intimacy that will build long-term relationships based on trust and value to the customer"....   [tags: Finance ] 1624 words
(4.6 pages)
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Zero-Based Budgeting - Unlike traditional budgets, zero-based budgeting requires the justification of each and every expense outlined in the budget. Zero based budget planning starts from the zero base line and each element of the budget is analyzed. Managers or department heads, if a government entity, will justify the reasoning behind their budget request. Most budgets are incremental which automatically increases the previous year’s budget. Depending on the review of the budget a department may or may not get a budget increase....   [tags: Finance] 712 words
(2 pages)
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Financial Comparison - This Fed-Ex report details some of the potential revenue implications that moving the NJATC workbooks to an online solution would provide. The basic premise of this report is the fact that we currently have costs associated with printing and that the delivery of workbooks in any online solution would also incur costs. (Blackboard was used in this comparison as they are arguably the most expensive and the one into which we have the greatest insight with respect to costs.) Part I of this report attempts to compare the two options with our traditional pricing model and Part II explores an alternative pricing structure....   [tags: Finance] 1213 words
(3.5 pages)
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Dividend Policy - 1. Introduction Dividend policy for a firm means whether to pay or not pay; whether to pay in cash, in stocks or both in cash and stocks and how frequently to pay. Why do firms distribute cash dividends when they observe a decline in their earnings. Why not stock repurchases. Why not stock dividend. To look at this research issue, the research will evaluate the cash dividend distribution behavior of firms in light of different ownership structures having trading restrictions. Firms listed on Karachi Stock market (KSE) have been chosen to evaluate the issue....   [tags: Finance] 2231 words
(6.4 pages)
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Government Auditors - This topic introduces students to the activities of government auditors. This topic also discussed operational auditing since government auditors as well as CA firms also involved in this engagement. GOVERNMENTAL FINANCIAL AUDITING In Malaysia, the Auditor General Office or the Jabatan Audit Negara (JAN) staff act as the external auditors to Malaysian government departments and agencies. Some of these staff is also seconded to serve as internal auditors in the government departments and agencies....   [tags: Finance] 1927 words
(5.5 pages)
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Market-to-Market Accounting - Market-to-market accounting Focuѕ of Financial Reporting Mark-to-market iѕ an accounting methodology of aѕѕigning a value to a poѕition held in a financial inѕtrument baѕed on the current market price for the inѕtrument or ѕimilar inѕtrumentѕ. For example, the final value of a futureѕ contract that expireѕ in 9 monthѕ will not be known until it expireѕ. If it iѕ marked to market, for accounting purpoѕeѕ it iѕ aѕѕigned the value that it would currently fetch in the open market(Webber, Clinton 2004)....   [tags: Finance ]
:: 11 Works Cited
2847 words
(8.1 pages)
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Dividend Tax - A dividend tax is an income tax paid on the earnings from a corporation that is distributed to its shareholders. Dividend payments are treated as ordinary income, and they are taxed as if the taxpayer had earned income through active work. Presently, there is much controversy surrounding the tax. The government taxes dividends twice: It first taxes corporate income, then taxes the same income again when shareholders receive dividends paid out of corporate income. Which is a “double taxation”( http://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~byeung/dividend%20taxation.pdf)....   [tags: Finance ]
:: 10 Works Cited
1368 words
(3.9 pages)
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Carbon Prices - On February 8th, 2010 the Security Exchange Commission announced that carbon emissions had become an important factor in the decision making criteria for investors, regulators, government, and other stakeholders. Currently, companies are not required to release data that is not material to stakeholders, and as a result many companies choose not to disclose carbon emissions. This is because many issuers have determined that “climate change will not have a material impact on their financial results”1....   [tags: Finance ]
:: 12 Works Cited
1676 words
(4.8 pages)
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Continuous Compounding - Online continuous compounding tutoring: Introduction to online continuous compounding tutoring: Let us see about online continuous compounding tutoring. The continuous compounding is one of the processes of earning interest on top of interest. The interest is earned constantly, and immediately begins earning interest on itself. The continuous compounding interest is a great thing when earning it. Continuous compounding means that principal amount is constantly earning interest and the interest keeps earning on the interest earned....   [tags: Finance] 678 words
(1.9 pages)
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Private Pensions - For most Americans, retirement has become a lifelong goal. To retire comfortably, you need income, and this income can come from one of three sources: savings, Social Security, or a company pension plan. The unfortunate fact is that Americans save very little money nowadays, and for anyone under forty, Social Security is a very hollow promise. For most, private pensions are the key to a comfortable retirement. When it comes to private pensions, however, most companies and employees themselves don’t contribute enough money, meaning that future retirees will have to work longer if they want to maintain their pre-retirement standard of liv¬ing into retirement....   [tags: Finance]
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Tax Analysis - The underlying drivers of Porter’s Five forces are the root causes of profitability within the tax software industry, however; particular drivers in each force make the industry unique. Two barriers to entry, economies of scale and government policies, generate the majority of profitability in the industry. Firms with the largest market share have little unit cost after software development and implementation. These large economies of scale decrease unit costs for a firm, and increase start-up costs for entrants....   [tags: Finance ]
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Currency Swaps - Although a relatively recent invention, currency swaps have quickly become a vital and widely used financial instrument. Given the steady increase in globalization, understanding the potential benefits of using currency swaps is essential to any modern multinational business. Currency swapping works just as the name implies – different national currencies are swapped between two parties for an agreed amount of time. Investopeia.com defines a currency swap as “two notional principals [of different currencies] that are exchanged at the beginning and at the end of the agreement” (Cavallaro, 2011)....   [tags: Finance]
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Tax Havens - A tax haven is a country that offers foreign corporations and individuals little to no tax liability, with a politically and economically stable environment. Some tax havens are Switzerland, Hong Kong, Bermuda, Ireland, and the Cayman Islands. The United States has been putting up a fight against the movement of corporations because they are losing money they could have used to help with the government debt. However, corporations have found loopholes that exempt them from United States tax laws....   [tags: Finance]
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Tax Havens - A tax haven is a country that offers foreign corporations and individuals relatively low corporate and income tax rates, with a politically and economically stable environment. Some tax havens are Switzerland, Hong Kong, Bermuda, Ireland, and the Cayman Islands. The United States government has been fighting against the movement of corporations because it is not collecting taxes from these corporations that it could have used to reduce government debt. However, corporations have found loopholes that exempt them from United States tax laws....   [tags: Finance]
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Capital Structure - Financial decision-makers must find answers to important questions, including; • What long-term investments should the firm undertake (capital budgeting) and how will investment and finance decisions affect the firm's value (valuation). • How can cash be raised for the required investments. This is known as the ‘financing decision' (cost of capital, capital structure and leasing). • How will the firm manage its day-to-day cash and financial affairs (short-term financing and net working capital)....   [tags: Business Finance] 1882 words
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Continental Carriers, Inc. - Continental Carriers, Inc. (This is not an essay. This paper responds to each of the comments raised by the five members of the board.) Continental Carriers, Inc. (CCI) should take on the long-term debt to finance the acquisition of Midland Freight, Inc. for a few reasons. The company is heavy on assets, the debt ratio will only grow to 0.40 with the added $50M in debt. Also, the firm will benefit from an added $2M in a tax shield and be able to return $12.7M a year to its stockholders and investors, instead of $8.9M if equity is raised to finance the acquisition....   [tags: Finance Advanced Financial Management] 923 words
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An Economic Perspective of Religious Organizations Abstract - An Economic Perspective of Religious Organizations Abstract In the process of studying religions, we often overlook the secular aspects of religious organizations. This paper examines the basic flows of money in different spiritual organizations, and attempts to correlate the types of income with the structure of the priestly hierarchy. This analysis is by no means comprehensive. In the end, more questions are raised than are answered. Introduction For all the mythological and sociological components of religion, religious organizations operate under the same restrictions as any other secular establishment....   [tags: Finance Economy Religion Church Papers]
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Central Express Corporation - Central Express Corporation Central Express Corporation recently experienced high levels of growth as a result of aggressive management which uses the proceeds from the initial public offering of its shares. To continue revenue expansion, CEC adopted a policy of selected acquisitions. The board chose Midland Freight, Inc. for the acquisition. CEC is now considering whether to use long term bonds, common stock, or preferred stock as method of financing for the $10M acquisition project. Computation of costs of capital shows that long term bonds have the lowest cost at 5.39%; furthermore, it also results to relatively higher earnings per share which most likely results to higher market price...   [tags: Business Management Finance Analysis] 1506 words
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Business Paper - Auditing is an examination of records or financial accounts to check their accuracy; all of person’s accounts are verified. Audits are usually done on an annual basis. These happen to people who provide a rather narrow financial accounting of money spent. If any findings of irregularities between the planned amount of money to be spent and the actual money spent an audit is done. When a person is audited, they are responsible for providing a detailed listing of expenditures that have accumulated in that a yearly period....   [tags: Auditing, Finance] 1338 words
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A Standard Guide in Bond Investments - A Standard Guide in Bond Investments Millions of Americans are cautious as to how they invest their money or where they should invest their money; whether it’s to invest in real estate, stocks, and mutual funds; or take a safer approach by choosing a conservative options and invest in bonds. While establishing their financial planning, most American chose to invest in stocks and mutual funds because of the potential in hope of a larger return for their investment. Whereas, conservative bonds such as government and corporate bonds offer lots of potential and investment growth in the long run....   [tags: Bond Investment Finance Low Risk] 2057 words
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The Career of a Stockbroker - The Career of a Stockbroker The career I wish to pursue is that of a stockbroker. I am extremely interested in the trading of stocks and financial holdings so the career of a stockbroker just seems to fit in with my overall plan. Numbers have also always been a fascination of mine and the trends of the economy and long term financial outlooks have often interested me greatly....   [tags: Stockbroking Investment Stocks Trading Finance] 766 words
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Gainesboro Machine Tools - Overview In mid September 2005, Ashley Swenson, the chief financial officer of this large CAD/CAM equipment manufacturer must decide whether to pay out dividends to the firm¡¦s shareholders or repurchase stock. If Swenson chooses to pay out dividends, she must also decide on the magnitude of the payout. A subsidiary question is whether the firm should embark on a campaign of corporate-image advertising and change its corporate name to reflect its new outlook. The case serves a review of the many practical aspects of the dividend and share buyback decisions, including(1) signaling effects, (2) clientele effects, and (3) finance and investment implications of increasing dividend payout and...   [tags: Case Study Analysis Dividends Finance] 1953 words
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Corporate Compliance - Corporate Compliance Introduction When companies are facing issues dealing with corporate compliance, implementing a system to deal with the compliance and corporate governance issues is the best opportunity for the companies. The companies should develop a process to analyze alternatives and integrate the appropriate opportunity into the companies system. The process includes defining and implementing compliance steps and process. Next, the companies will recommend a preventative solution that incorporates risk mitigation....   [tags: Auditing Finance Business Regulation] 1231 words
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Target-Stock Analysis - Target, the nation's #2 discount chain, now operates more than 1,500 Target and Super Target stores in 47 states, as well as an online business called Target.com. Target and its larger grocery-carrying stores, Super Target, have carved out a niche by offering more upscale, fashion-forward merchandise than rivals Wal-Mart and Kmart. After years of struggling to turn around its Marshall Fields and Mervyns departments stores divisions, the discounter sold them both in 2004. Target also owns apparel supplier The Associated Merchandising Corp....   [tags: Finance Investment Analysis] 1001 words
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Internet Banking - Internet Banking In the days of virtualisation where working mothers and travelling sales-team prefer to use flexi-time and remote jobs profile; Internet is being adopted as a parallel medium of communication, transaction, and social networking. Internet banking is fast gaining momentum across the globe for its convenience and ease of conducting transactions at a speed and service levels never dreamt of, a decade ago. In-spite of its multiple advantages, there is a need to step back and re-think on perceptions it carries with the masses....   [tags: Internet Global Finance Banking] 1396 words
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Capital Adequacy - Capital Adequacy Introduction: There is a close relation between the capital adequacy and the financial system but it is important to have an overview before get to the more detailed study of what is going on in the financial system. There is a constant flow of cash and funds through the financial system due to the financial institutions as they assist money movement among the borrowers and lenders (lecture notes, chapter 8, 9, 15) a financial institution is basically a firm like a bank which acts as a safe house for depositors to keep their money and also provide loan with interest to others and this how they expand the institution....   [tags: Business Finance Management] 1943 words
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Adelphia Cable - Adelphia Cable "Adelphia is one of the nation's leading cable companies with more than 5.3 million residential customers nationwide. In addition to cable entertainment Adelphia offers digital cable, high-speed internet access, long distance telephone service, and home security" (Adelphia). The leadership of this company currently consists of 18 officers. One officer for each of the five regions Adelphia covers. One officer in each of the following: Human Resource, Finance, Customer Care, Marketing, Programming, Media Services, Chief Accounting Officer, and Information Technology....   [tags: Business Finance Management] 1685 words
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Bond Markets - Bond Markets A bond is a debt security, or basically a loan, that an investor makes to a corporation, a government, an agency, or municipalities. In return for up-front cash, a corporation or government promises to make specific payments to a bondholder on specific dates. The bondholder can not only expect fixed payments but also the principle repayment when the bond reaches its maturity date (The Bond Market, 2002). A bond is considered a fixed-income security because the investor knows the exact amount of cash that will be paid back if the bond is held until maturity....   [tags: Finance Financial Investment Investing] 935 words
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Economic Outlook - Investments Moody’s Economy.com predicts a 1.1% drop in investment Gross Domestic Product (GDP), over a 2.9% drop in 2007. Given the recent sub-prime mortgage debacle and similar collaterized debt in the corporate market, the 1.1% drop is understated given the tightness in corporate lending and the government's short term stimulus package. The stock market dropped in tandem with recent events over the past few weeks including a one day 309 point drop in the Dow Jones Industrial Average....   [tags: Economy Analysis Finance] 1105 words
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Long-Term Financing - Long-Term Financing Long- term financing strategies are used by financial managers to insure that funds invested today will increase in value or stay the same over a stated period of time. This document will compare and contrast the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) and discounted cash flow method (DCF). The debt and equity mix are intended to enable an organization to capitalize on investments. The debt and equity mix will be reviewed as will the characteristics of the financial market and debt and equity instruments....   [tags: Business Finance Investment] 1759 words
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Revenue Recognition - Whenever a product is sold, the seller earns and reports the revenue. However, in the real world such sales transactions are not as straight forward, and the principle of revenue recognition is one that creates the most issues for accountants. Now a days the process of selling has become quite complex. There are many issues and procedures involved. Customers have the option to make payments right away when making the sale, or can choose to make the payment in installments as agreed to in the sales contract....   [tags: Business Finance Accounting]
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Wells Fargo - Wells Fargo offers a wide range of financial services, claiming in its investor presentations to operate more than 80 divisions while still being able to stand for more then one thing. In addition, the company claims to be one of the most "integrated" of financial services companies. For example, instead of running a stock brokerage with separate branches and different customers, Wells Fargo stock brokers sit in retail branches, and generally only serve banking customers. (wellsfargo.com) Despite this wide range of divisions, Wells Fargo only describes in detail three different business segments when reporting results, which are Retail Banking, which is typically your everyday banking where...   [tags: Bank Banking Analysis Finance] 794 words
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Tobin Tax - The Tobin Tax –A Solution to the Problems of Globalization. 1. Introduction Recently, there is a fierce academic and political discussion about chances and risks of globalization. Especially globalization of financial markets not only enhances the allocation of capital and support trade in goods and services through lower transaction costs and higher liquidity. Moreover, international asset diversification and hedging opportunities lower risks, and free international financial markets make it easier to reach foreign capital, especially for emerging economies....   [tags: Globalization Business Finance] 1459 words
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Accounting - Accounting Introduction The financial information is a very important matter in a company success. Allow them to see if they have been successful in the past, in the present and help them to predict a future performance of you company. The form, the use and the people involve with the financial and accounting information in a company is going to be developed in this report. Accounting Knowing the status of your company in every single area will allow you to improve your performance and developed strategies with a solid background for a successful operation....   [tags: Business Accounting Finance] 1235 words
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Enron - The fall of the colossal entity called Enron has forever changed the level of trust that the American public holds for large corporations. The wake of devastation caused by this and other recent corporate financial scandals has brought about a web of new reforms and regulations such as the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which was signed into law on July 30th, 2002. We are forced to ask ourselves if it will happen again. This essay will examine the collapse of Enron and detail the main causes behind this embarrassing stain of American history....   [tags: Accounting Scandal Finance] 977 words
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