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Your search returned over 400 essays for "Biology"
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Nematode and Bacteria Symbiosis - "Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus bacteria colonize the intestines of the infective soil-dwelling stage of entomophagous nematodes, Heterorhabditis and Steinernema, respectively. These nematodes infect susceptible insect larvae and release the bacteria into the insect blood. The bacteria kill the insect larvae and convert the cadaver into a food source suitable for nematode growth and development. After several rounds of reproduction the nematodes are recolonized by the bacteria before emerging from the insect cadaver into the soil to search for a new host....   [tags: Mutualism Pathogenesis Evolutionary Biology]
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Cloning: The Ethical Dilemma - Cloning: The Ethical Dilemma Following the successful cloning of a lamb to produce Dolly, a genetically identical twin of its mother lamb, controversy has arose over the frightening prospects of cloning technology. Although undeniable that the ability to clone livestock and even humans is a leap in medical advancement, such technology must be utilized with careful considerations to the issue of ethics. There are many obvious advantages of cloning technology which comes to mind with the successful cloning of Dolly....   [tags: Biology] 496 words
(1.4 pages)
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Cloning: The Double-Edged Sword - Cloning: The Double-Edged Sword Such a furore was created when the birth of Dolly the sheep; the first successfully cloned mammal, was announced to the world in 1997, that the scientific community was gasping for air. Time and space seemed to have come to a virtual standstill as scientists vigorously, not to mention obsessively, hypothesized the cosmic future potential of Dr. Wilmut's team's revolutionary breakthrough in the dynamic realm of science. The euphoria of the moment, it seems, took some time to settle before scientists began to unravel the possible detrimental ramifications of the discovery....   [tags: Biology] 445 words
(1.3 pages)
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Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis - Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis with reference to i. Chromosomesii. Biological significance i. Chromosomes ii. Biological significance Modern cell theory states that all cells are derived from other cells. This means cells must have a way of copying themselves. This is cell division; two types of cell division are Meiosis and Mitosis. The comparison will be between Meiosis 1 and Mitosis, because Meiosis 2 is much the same as Mitosis. Dividing cells have a regular pattern of events, known as the cell cycle....   [tags: Biology] 1215 words
(3.5 pages)
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Biochemical and Biophysical Principles - Summary We performed a series of experiments that enabled us to understand some basic biochemical and biophysical principles; Osmosis, Diffusion, Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic substances and the like. We differentiated hydrophobic substances and hydrophilic substances by observing the different reactions of water, oil, and substance X. On the other hand, we also observed the different characteristics of Osmosis and Diffusion. Finally, we described the different characteristics of some Carbohydrates and compared their characteristics with each other....   [tags: Biology] 1707 words
(4.9 pages)
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Plant Structure and Function - Plant structure and function Aug. 4, 2005 Summary In the lab exercise regarding plant structure and function, we examined slides containing the different kinds of roots (monocot, dicot). We labeled the parts and pointed out the different roles of each in the plant structure. Also, we examined monocot stems and dicot stems in order to familiarize ourselves with its external and internal structures. We sketched and labeled the parts of the stem and looked closely at the positions of each part....   [tags: Biology] 666 words
(1.9 pages)
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The Life of Plankton - Background Why is the sky blue. Why is the grass green. So many questions ponder through each individual's head. The main question of the experiment performed is "Why are plankton so small?" As a group, the main concept that was explored was how the Nutrient Feeding of Phytoplankton leads to its size. The Independent Variable of the experiment was the Surface Area to Volume Ratio, the Dependent Variable was the Percent Fed, the Control was the Untreated Plankton, and the hypothesis proposed acknowledged that if the Surface Area to Volume Ratio is large, then it will be 100 percent fed....   [tags: Biology] 364 words
(1 pages)
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Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, commonly known as SARS, first came onto the scene in November 2002 in mainland China. The respiratory disease is characterized by fever and coughing much like flu. While at first the etiological agent was unknown, through persistent research scientists discovered it to be a coronavirus. This causative agent created history because it was the first time it has ever been found in the human population. This coronavirus raised many questions for scientists as to why the pathogen causes morbidity and mortality....   [tags: Biology] 649 words
(1.9 pages)
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Photosynthesis Versus Cellular Respiration - Photosynthesis is the storage of energy in carbon compounds. In photosynthesis, the sun's energy is converted to chemical energy and stored in glucose molecules. In photosynthesis, we see energy associated with electrons or being released from association of electrons. There are two pathways associated with photosynthesis: light and dark reactions. I will concentrate on the non-cyclic light reactions of photosynthesis. Light reactions are driven by light energy. This pathway produces ATP and a reduced electron carrier (NADPH + H )....   [tags: Biology] 445 words
(1.3 pages)
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Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer - Over the past decade, advances in the field of cloning have allowed for the possibility of human cloning. By using the process of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), in which the DNA from an adult cell is transferred into an unfertilized egg, scientists have developed the ability to clone numerous types of animals related to humans. Cloning has proven to be useful in several areas of science, improving scientists' understanding of the functions of genes and the cell cycle. In addition, scientists are on the path toward using cloning in order to create organs, tissues, and other technologies useful for the treatment of humans with serious diseases....   [tags: Biology] 731 words
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A Leader of Death - Since 1981 this monster has plagued our streets ruining life after life, destroying everything in its path. This haunting disease comes in the form of a virus that has killed 21.8 million people thus far, of which almost 20 percent were children under the age of fifteen. Yet there are still millions of individuals who still don't believe they can be affected by Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, the AIDS virus. For this reason and many more the number of infected HIV/AIDS persons have grown to approximately 40 million....   [tags: Biology] 332 words
(0.9 pages)
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Sex Determination and Differentiation - Sex determination is decided by the 23rd pair of chromosomes commonly known as the sex chromosomes. Males have XY as their 23rd pair and females have XX. A female gamete, the ovum, can only receive only the X chromosome and the male gamete, the spermatozoon can receive either the X or the Y chromosome when meiosis occurs. Therefore the male sperm is responsible for the sex determination of the baby. Example:<BR> Figure 1: a Punnet square showing that there is an equal opportunity for a foetus to develop into either a male or female....   [tags: Biology] 656 words
(1.9 pages)
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Hypoglycemic Depression in Diabetics - Hypoglycemic Depression in Diabetics My desire to obtain information related to the causes and effects of depression during Hypoglycemic (low blood sugar) reactions in diabetics has been of interest to me because of my own experiences with Type I diabetes. I have been an insulin dependent diabetic since the age of 17. I must explain that Type I diabetes was previously called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, or juvenile-onset diabetes. Type I diabetes develops when the body's immune system destroys pancreatic beta cells, the only cells in the body that make the hormone insulin that regulates blood glucose....   [tags: Biology] 1265 words
(3.6 pages)
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Absorptive and Postabsorptive States - Absorptive and Postabsorptive States The absorptive state is the time during and right after eating a meal. The absorptive state lasts for four hours, during and after each meal. During this state glucose is the most important energy fuel. Amino acids and fats are used to form degraded protein, and small amounts are used to provide ATP. Metabolites are transformed to fat if they are not used for anabolism. Glucose is formed by the conversion of fructose and galactose, which are stored in the liver from the entrance of monosaccharides....   [tags: Biology] 286 words
(0.8 pages)
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Cancer and NMR Spectroscopy - Cancer is a disease that will most likely affect each and every one of us throughout our lives. There are approximately 560,000 people that die from cancer each year. To put it in perspective, between 1/4 and 1/3 of all Americans will die from this deadly disease. These statistics could be greatly reduced if people would stop smoking. Approximately 35% of all cancer cases are direct results of tobacco use. Many people do not fully understand what cancer really is. Cancer is simply a mutation in the cells which causes them to replicate continuously without bond....   [tags: Biology ] 1565 words
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Cell Morphology and Motility - Tumor cells try to spread throughout the body. In order to do so, these cells need Rho and ROCK or Rac to signal their movement. There are at least two types of morphology (shapes/forms) that need these signals for cell movement. One type is the elongated morphology, which needs to use Rac for signalling, and pericellular proteolysis (an enzyme) for movement. The other type is the rounded (amoeboid) morphology, which uses RhoA and ROCK signalling. Initially, tumor cells were known to take the elongated form....   [tags: Biology] 1553 words
(4.4 pages)
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Post-Translational Modifications - Post-translational modifications have a profound influence on the structure and function of many proteins. Dystroglycan (DG) is an example of a membrane protein that requires extensive post-translational processing in order to function as an extracellular matrix receptor. It is comprised of two subunits, an extracellular -DG subunit and a transmembrane -DG subunit, which are derived by cleavage of a polypeptide encoded by DAG1 (1). The apparent molecular mass (Mr) of -DG as assessed by SDS-PAGE varies from 120- to 200-kDa, due to developmental and tissue-specific post-translational modification of an ~40-kDa core polypeptide (1, 2)....   [tags: Biology] 2682 words
(7.7 pages)
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Ferret Study - The ferret SA node is located at the junction of the superior vena cava and right atrium near the sulcus terminalis region (Fig. 1, A and B). Cross sections of the right atrium revealed an ovoid shaped SA node positioned epicardially (Fig. 1C). A light microscopic view of the SA node region shows two nodal arteries, centrally located, surrounded by a ring of dark cells (Fig. 1D). Larger, pale cells form a concentric ring around the dark cells (Fig. 1D). Thus, while being smaller, many features of ferret SA node displayed striking similarities to classic descriptions of human SA node (29; 69; 70)....   [tags: Biology ] 2466 words
(7 pages)
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Toxicological Studies - II - Toxicological Studies:- A-Field evaluation of tested treatments on Lepidosaphes pallidula infests mango trees: 1-Field evaluation of tested treatments on different stages of Lepidosaphes pallidula. Data presented in table (XXI) and graphs illustrated in Fig (94) showed the mean percentage reduction of different stages of Lepidosaphes pallidula and the average of total population. Four post treatment counts were recorded, (two, four, six and eight weeks) after spraying mango trees with the tested insecticidal agent in May 2009 at Shebeen al Qanater area....   [tags: Biology ] 1084 words
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Apoplastic Proteins - The apoplast is the outer segment of the plant cell membrane. The apoplast has a variety of functions during plant physiological and development stage. It acts as a barricade and also a connection between the atmosphere and the protoplast. The apoplast is the main location, where plants express proteins. These proteins each of them have various roles that have physiological importance in the apoplast and overall fundamental impact in plant cell function. The primary objective of this paper is to establish the principle functions of apoplastic proteins in higher plants which include slowing ice formation and increasing survival at freezing temperatures, cell expansion, and their response to...   [tags: Biology ]
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1135 words
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Water Potential Investigation - Water Potential Investigation Aim: To determine the water potential of potato cells and sweet potato cells during the process of osmosis. (Only water molecules can pass through by the process of osmosis) Osmosis is the movement of water particles from a low region of water concentration to a high region of water concentration through a partially permeable membrane. A partially permeable membrane is known as the barrier which allows certain substances to move across, such as water molecules which move through freely, but prevents the movement of other substances, like sucrose....   [tags: Biology Lab Report] 1206 words
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Morality's Biological Nature - Morality's Biological Nature: Implications for the Attribution of "Good" and "Evil". "A man who has no assured and ever present belief in the existence of a personal God or of a future existence with retribution and reward, can have for his rule of life, as far as I can see, only to follow those impulses and instincts which are the strongest or which seem to him the best ones. . . . If he acts for the good of others, he will receive the approbation of his fellow men and gain the love of those with whom he lives." - Charles Darwin In my last paper "Serial Killers: Just trying to feel normal, it's not my fault" (4) I addressed the question as to whether biology can make us murderers....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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Nature vs Nurture - Nature vs Nurture The issues pitting nature against nurture are exceptionally significant for the gamut of discoveries that attribute an increasing proportion of traits and behaviours to one's genetic makeup. The resulting variety of physical shortcomings and limitations in each person has, for centuries, been countered by endeavours to improve or interfere where necessary, and every individual is consequently the product of a delicate middle path of balance between the two. The importance of nurturing is nearly boundless, and there is no better evidence than the oft-cited case of identical twins who, despite identical nuclear genomes and mitochondrial DNA, will duly differ in physique an...   [tags: Biology Science Essays]
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The Dream State - The Dream State Sigmund Freud noted as the Father of modern Psychology, believed that the function of dreaming was to allow the release of repressed instinctual impulses in a way that would preserve the ability to sleep, and that the instigating force causing dreams to occur was always a repressed thought or wish. Though Freud was an avid student of neurobiology, at the time when his suppositions were created scientists were unaware of certain aspects of the nervous system that today make Freudís theory unlikely (2)....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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The Homosexual Brain? - The Homosexual Brain. In 1992, Vice-President Dan Quayle said that homosexuality "is more of a choice than a biological situation...It is a wrong choice." (1). Quayle's statement counters the sentiment of many homosexuals that their sexual orientation is neither a lifestyle nor a personal choice, it is innate and unchangeable (2) . Is homosexuality a choice or does sexual preference have a biological basis. This question is at the forefront of academic, scientific, political, legal and media consciousness (3)....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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Pinpointing Tourette's Syndrome - Pinpointing Tourette's Syndrome Though Tourette's syndrome was first studied in the 1800's, it is an illness that has yet to be fully explained by any discipline. Presenting with muscular tics, some of which result in verbal utterances, Tourette's is a condition that is easily characterized. Yet its causes are not so easy to pin down. Though psychiatry and biology have been able to recognize roots other than the demonic possession once thought to cause Tourette's, there are few definitive, precise explanations of its etiology....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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Symmetry Defines Beauty - What attracts one person to another. The question is crucial as we consider the values of our society, the emphasis we put on physical beauty and beauty products, the new resurgence of weight loss wonder drugs and popular fad diets, not to mention a new reality TV show devoted to placing a new person under the knife for plastic surgery every week. All of these carry the same message: beauty is nearly synonymous with happiness. So then is the nature of "beauty" a philosophical conundrum, a biological issue, a psychological mind set, or a cultural problem....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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The Nature-Nurture Debate - How the Pendulum Swings: The Nature-Nurture Debate One of the most intriguing science-and-culture debates of the twentieth century is that of the origin of behavior. The issue that has its roots in biology and psychology is popularly framed as the "nature versus nurture" debate. At different points in time, consensus has swung from one to the other as the supposed cause of our actions. These changes are not only the result of an internal dynamic but were subject (as they are today) to external influences, most notably politics and developments in other academic disciplines....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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Crying Away Stress - Tearful Serenity: Crying Away the Stress Some days you've just had it. You've been talked at all day by people you couldn't care less about, the lady at the convenience store snapped at you, your friend invited herself over right when you had exactly one hour to write a paper, you got caught in a traffic jam going shopping, you're starting to seriously rethink your life career ... and now there's a thirty dollar parking ticket stuck on your windshield because that darn machine wasn't accepting quarters....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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Human Gene Therapy - Human Gene Therapy Human gene therapy is a fairly new study in the biology and medical fields. The value of gene therapy extends from curing horrible genetic diseases, to enhancing our bodies physical appearance, and to being a new drug delivery system (1). The results from gene therapy seem almost limitless once it becomes common practice, but for right now there are still some technical aspects to overcome. Gene therapy is also a highly controversial topic in some aspects. One of the major goals of gene therapy, and could be the most important, is replacing defective or missing genes with healthy ones....   [tags: Science Biology Genetics Essays]
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Human Gene Therapy - Human Gene Therapy Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was discovered in 1944 by Avery and colleagues. Avery identified DNA as the primary genetic material. Watson and Crick later discovered the double helix structure of DNA. Leder and co-workers deciphered the triple nucleotide code that designated the amino acids from which proteins were built. The science of molecular biology was born (Sokol, Gewirtz, 1996). In 1990 a four year old girl who was suffering from severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) was the first to undergo gene therapy....   [tags: Genetics Science Biology Essays]
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Human Genome Project - Human Genome Project Human curiosity is one of the most powerful engines that drive new knowledge, development, advancements and life improvements today. Some 100,000 or 200,000 years ago Homo sapiens emerged, and up to today humans are still searching for answers such as what we are and where we came from. For all of the diversity of the world's more than five billion people, full of creativity and contradictions, every human mind and body is built and runs with fewer than 100,000 kinds of protein molecules....   [tags: Genetics Science Biology Essays]
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Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) - Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) ATP stands for Adenosine Triphosphate and is the immediate supply of energy for biological processes. The ATP consists of an organic nitrogenous base, Adenosine, which is one of the four bases found in a DNA strand, it also consists of a ribose sugar with three phosphates joined by high energy bonds. The energy itself is stored in the form of high-energy chemical bonds; this energy is released on hydrolysis, i.e. by the reaction with water, in a similar way peptide bonds are hydrolysed in proteins....   [tags: Biology] 1312 words
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Men Eclipse Females - After a certain amount of time deeply pondering the differences between men and women, I was able to conclusively determine the following things that men are better at than women. There are many instances in which men can be compared to women, and where each stands alone. However, nobody knows for sure which is better. The reason why nobody knows who is the better gender is that a neutral party can't be reached. Who in this world isn't a man or a woman. That's right, not one person. Men and women have no set of laws between each other....   [tags: Biology] 499 words
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Creationism Vs. Evolutionism - The scientific explanation of the creation of the universe is better known as the "Big Bang." It is to my understanding that the "Big Bang" theory states that billions of years ago there was nothing. A small, but very intensely hot ball of pure energy then exploded, and gave way to radiation and matter. Gravity then pulled the matter outward, and thus was the beginning of the universe. The "Big Bang" explanation is the atheistic view of the creation of the universe. The major difference between the scientific and the biblical versions is the belief that there is a Creator and that the creation was not an accident, but rather a carefully planned design....   [tags: Biology] 446 words
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A Gender Debate - Gender refers to the psychological, social, and cultural differences between males and females. Gender also means the physiological and anatomical differences between the male and female bodies. Most socio-biologists believe differences in sex are a result of differences in the thinking and behavior of men and women. They argue gender identity is formed through socialization. Gender structures every aspect of an individual's life through social relationships and all forms of interaction with society including work....   [tags: Biology] 612 words
(1.7 pages)
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Barred Owl/Strix Varia - "The study of the Barred Owl (Strix varia): Appearance, Location, Habitat, Food Habits, Reproduction, and Management Plans" The barred owl (Strix varia) is the most commonly found in southeastern Ohio, but is range across North America is vast. Strix varia is a large, round-headed woodland owl with a grey-white facial disc. Its plumage is grey-brown with white spots on the back, white streaks on the belly, and distinct white bars on their neck and breast, from which their name is derived. It has brown eyes, a yellow beak, a long tail, and it lacks ear tufts (Quimby, 2000)....   [tags: Biology] 718 words
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Human Growth Hormone - Human Growth Hormone Human Growth Hormone is a chemical formula that prevents biological aging. To most people, the only thing known to do the same as HGH is "the fountain of youth". HGH is one of many endocrine hormones found in the human anotomy, like estrogen, progestorene, testosterone, melatonin and DHEA, which decline in production with age. Many of these hormones can be replaced to deter some of the effects of aging. HGH is by far more superior than any other of the hormones not only because it prevents aging, but also reverses most of the signs and symptoms associated with aging....   [tags: Biology] 299 words
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Metasizing Cancer Cells - The human body encompasses some thirty trillion cells. The cells which comprise normal, healthy tissues in the body live in an interdependent relationship with surrounding cells. These tissues are intricately arranged into a marvelous array of cell to cell adhesions and extracellular matrixes. Healthy cells reproduce in a coordinated manner which insures that a particular body tissue maintains its appropriate size, form, and function. Cells which have lost the ability to reproduce in a controlled fashion are termed cancerous cells....   [tags: Biology] 1735 words
(5 pages)
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AIDS Resistance Genes - The What AIDS researchers have recently uncovered a genetic trait that may provide protection against HIV-1. A "defect" that could account for unexplained cases of individuals that seem to have an immunity or protection against HIV-1. They are calling the trait an "AIDS Resistance Gene". What is an AIDS-Resitance Gene. This is just one of the questions our group inquired about when we began our investigations into the latest of AIDS research. AIDS Acquired immune deficiency syndrome, AIDS, is a serious disease that becomes more and more common in our nation and around the world....   [tags: Biology] 3744 words
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Short Interfering RNA - missing figures Background Information RNA inference (RNAi) was first discovered in Cenorhabditis elegans nearly a decade ago and have been revolutionizing gene-function analysis ever since. This discovery began the process by which scientists work with a known gene sequence and attempt to define its biological function by disrupting its activity in vivo. It involves the introduction of homologous double stranded RNA (dsRNA) to specifically target a gene's product and to disrupt the function of that gene in vivo....   [tags: Biology] 1900 words
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Organic Anion Transporters - The main location of the protein organic anion transporter 3 is in the kidney and the function of the kidney is to get toxins, usually in the form of organic anions, or even medications out of the body. In order to separate and transport these toxins through the blood to the kidney, specific proteins called organic anion transporters (OAT) exist. The sole function of these proteins is to bind to these molecules and take them to the kidney where they can be separated from the blood and excreted....   [tags: Biology] 1695 words
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Blood Brain Barrier - The brain is permeated by a vast network of tiny blood vessels called capillaries- so tiny and thin that blood cells have to pass through in single file. In the brain alone there are enough capillaries that if you laid them all out end to end they would stretch from Tucson to Tijuana. These capillaries are surrounded by a single layer of cells. That layer of cells forms a barrier between the capillaries and the cells and fluid of the brain. These barrier-forming cells are called "endothelial cells"....   [tags: Biology] 3008 words
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Natural Night Vision - Admit it, night vision is an ability that we would all enjoy having. Who would not want to be able to see the world at night without the use of fancy instrumentation, like night-vision goggles. Unfortunately, humans become colorblind at night because their eyes switch from normal daytime vision to a color-insensitive rod system. Unlike humans, a lot of other animals have the ability to see in the dark. This nocturnal ability is a major subject of research because scientists want to know what causes it, what methodology lies behind it, and what limitations there are....   [tags: Biology] 1559 words
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West Nile Virus - West Nile Virus has emerged in recent years throughout the temporate zones of Europe and North America. Causing a variety of conditions in its hosts, the most serious manifestation of WN virus infection is fatal encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) in humans and horses, and many birds. History While many forms of encephalitis exist, West Nile Virus was first isolated and identified in the West Nile District of Uganda in 1937. The virus, which was seemingly isolated to North Eastern Africa, became recognized as a cause of severe human meningoencephalitis (inflammation of the spinal cord and brain) in elderly patients during an outbreak in Israel in 1957....   [tags: Biology] 1498 words
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Inhibiting GSK-3 Activity - Missing Figures Type 2 Diabetes is a growing problem in the United States. In the year 2002, there were 20.8 million people with diabetes. This is equivalent to 7% of the U.S. population. And it is estimated that the number of people affected by Type 2 Diabetes will increase to 300 million by the year 2025 (From Hendriksen's paper). Diabetes is the cause of 224,092 deaths a year. The economic cost of diabetes in 2002 was $132 billion. Another 54 million people are at a heightened risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes....   [tags: Biology] 1554 words
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Fossil Gaps - Fossil Gaps “The study of fossils provides strong evidence for evolution.” (Campbell, 260) Or does it. The fact is that the fossil record is a silent testimony against Darwin’s erroneous theories of the fossil record documenting his idea of macroevolution. The book, Biology: Concepts and Connections (hereafter referred to as Biology), clearly agrees with the evolutionary outlook of “fossils [being] a rich source of evidence for evolution.” (Campbell, 260) However, this book, along with most evolutionists, avoids the substantial questions the fossil record actually represents....   [tags: Geology Evolution Essays Biology]
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Rage Disorder - Rage Disorder The study of the relationship between the mind and the brain can be traced back to 1895, when a little known Viennese neuro-psychiatrist named Sigmund Freud wrote a relatively unnoticed piece titled "A Project for a Scientific Psychology". In it, he proposed that the cognitive mechanisms of normal and abnormal mental phenomenon could be explained through an orderly study of brain systems. Throughout contemporary philosophy and psychology, the relationship between mind and brain has been extensively studied without a decisive resolution....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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Near-Death Experiences - Near-Death Experiences The near-death experience further depicts the ongoing debate between science and religion. While the near-death experience is definitely biology-based, many individuals associate it with a religious phenomenon. A neurobiological model of the near-experience consists of a "perception of separation from the body" (1). One can sense "moving through a dark space or tunnel" (2). Another feature is hallucinations such as "God as light" and angels (1). Some individuals also claim to hear noises at the beginning of the near-death experience and later encounter "mystical states" which are often peaceful (1)....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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506 words
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DNA Extraction - DNA Extraction In extracting chromatin from the cells of wheat germ there are seven steps to follow. The optimal cell to use would be the polyploidal eukaryotic. Eukaryotes have nucleus membrane-bound organelles, while prokaryotic does not. The polyploidal eukaryotic cell has DNA that is held in the nucleus while the prokaryote has DNA that floats freely around the cell. The DNA of eukaryotes is more complex and extensive than the other. Prokaryote is a bacterial cell that usually has DNA in one large strand and only has one chromosome while the eukaryotic cell has more than one chromosome and is considered to be a higher organism....   [tags: Process Biology Biological Essays]
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585 words
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Rani Shankar - Rani Shankar As much as I would have liked to continue my engaging research on Parkinson's Disease and Alzheimer's (issues I hold very dear to my heart), during my preliminary research for the third paper I felt drawn to another, equally interesting, topic. As finals rapidly approach and the idea of graduation becomes more real by day, this new topic seemed to have more personal significance to my life. And so I began research on this topic with purely selfish motivations- to better understand the phenomenon of stress....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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2993 words
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Tourette Syndrome - Tourette Syndrome I have been intrigued by this disorder since I met a beautiful little girl named Sarah. Sarah's father recently told me that doctors have informed him that Sarah may have Tourette Syndrome. I had visions in my mind of a little girl shouting profanity uncontrollably with arms flailing about, although the times that I have been with Sarah have never been marked by these actions. I set out to find more information to satisfy my own curiosity and to make myself a resource for Sarah's father....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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Sibling Rivalry - Sibling rivalry (the slightly-less-amazing adventures of Professor Sanderson's Sociobiology discussion group) Why yes, it's... The slightly-less-amazing adventures of Professor Sanderson's Sociobiology discussion group. Today's topic: Sibling Rivalry ** Professor Armand Sanderson's Sociobiology lecture was not quite as popular as his brother Julian's Paleobio class. Partly this was because sociobio did not lend itself to psycho-Permian field trips; partly this was because he, unlike his Cosmopolitan brother, looked more like a lumberjack than a professor....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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Cloning Madness - Cloning Madness Cloning, a topic that has recently caused mayhem all over the world, is possible, but will it be here to stay. The astonishing news that scientists had cloned a sheep a couple of years ago sent people into panic at the thought that humans might be next. "Cloning is a radical challenge to the most fundamental laws of biology, so it's not unreasonable to be concerned that it might threaten human society and dignity" (Macklin 64). Since most of the opposition is coming from the pure disgust of actually being able to clone species, it makes it difficult for people to get away from the emotional side of the issue and analyze the major implications cloning would have for society...   [tags: Science Genetics Biology Papers]
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Cellular Reproduction - Cellular Reproduction Cellular Reproduction is the process by which all living things produce new organisms similar or identical to themselves. This is essential in that if a species were not able to reproduce, that species would quickly become extinct. Always, reproduction consists of a basic pattern: the conversion by a parent organism of raw materials into offspring or cells that will later develop into offspring. (Encarta, 2) In almost all animal organisms, reproduction occurs during or after the period of maximum growth....   [tags: Biology]
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Human Evolution - Human Evolution Human Evolution, the biological and cultural development of the species Homo sapiens, or human beings. A large number of fossil bones and teeth have been found at various places throughout Africa, Europe, and Asia. Tools of stone, bone, and wood, as well as fire hearths, campsites, and burials, also have been discovered and excavated. As a result of these discoveries, a picture of human evolution during the past 4 to 5 million years has emerged. Human Physical Traits Humans are classified in the mammalian order Primates; within this order, humans, along with our extinct close ancestors, and our nearest living relatives, the African apes, are sometimes placed together in the...   [tags: Biology] 2715 words
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Muscle Contraction - The nervous system performs its functions as neurons (nerve cells that transmit nerve impulses) innervate muscle structures. For a muscle to contract, the nervous system must first receive sensory inputs. During this process, sensory neurons take nerve impulses from sensory receptors in the skin and other organs to the central nervous system (i.e. brain and spinal cord) in response to external and internal stimuli. For example, to open a book by arm muscle contraction, continual sensory input to the central nervous system from the eyes and hands must be made to inform the position of the book....   [tags: Biology] 447 words
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Sex Traits - Abstract Drosophila melanogaster were mated in labs 8, 11, and 13 to illustrate how the sex-linked genes are passed on from one generation to the next. This was accomplished by crossing different genotypes. In order to do this, the flies first had to be put to sleep, then counted under a dissecting scope and finally separated in to groups of red-eyed females, white-eyed females, red-eyed males, and white-eyed males. For the F1 a generation my results were 22 red-eyed males, 0 white-eyed males, 47 red-eyed females, and 0 white-eyed females....   [tags: Biology] 1675 words
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Lythrum Salicaria - Background information Lythrum salicaria, commonly known as purple loosestrife, is an exotic, wetland perennial introduced from Europe approximately two-hundred years ago. The plant was introduced both as a contaminant of European ship ballast and as a valued medical herb (Malecki, Blossey, Hight & Schroeder, 1993). These plants although attractive to look at are responsible for the degradation of many New York wetlands. Because they produce so many seeds and can grow up to a centimeter a day, they are able to eliminate native plants and thus, reducing the food for the wetland inhabitants....   [tags: Biology] 1144 words
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Growth Hormones - Growth hormones are a very controversial subject in today's society. The hormones carry with them very potent results. This in many cases is a benefit for it's users. Studies have shown that growth hormones can help children who are small in stature. Around 1990 growth hormones became a common solution to children who failed to mature in relation to the normal growth curve. During these years growth hormones were not approved for adults unless they were severely damaged by a disease, trauma, or tumor....   [tags: Biology] 901 words
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Nuclear Division - Cells are able to grow and reproduce. Cells reproduce by splitting and passing on their genes (hereditary information) to Daughter cells. The nucleus always divides before the rest of the cell divides. Therefore each daughter cell contains their own nucleus. The nucleus controls the cells activities through the genetic material DNA. The cells in a body are all the same except the gametes they were all made from one cell, the Zygote. This is the cell that was formed when two gametes from your parents fused....   [tags: Biology] 911 words
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Model Organisms - During the course of the past thirty years, the study of model organisms has become more significant in the study of embryological development. A model organism is a species that is easy to cultivate and monitor in a laboratory environment and is used to represent broad groups of organisms. Examples of successful and important model organisms include the Ascidia, Zebrafish, and Medeka species. Through intense researching of these organisms, scientists have been able to gain valuable insight into the developmental processes of many complex vertebrates, including humans....   [tags: Biology] 768 words
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Circadian Clocks - What is a circadian clock. A circadian clock is an internal biological clock that is found in almost all organisms, which regulates many metabolic processes. This biological clock allows organisms to adjust physiologically to changes in the environment. It is also influential in an organism’s behavior based on environmental differences. What do circadian clocks regulate. In plants, circadian clocks control flowering, response to seasons, and photosynthesis such as the opening and closing of the stomata....   [tags: Biology] 1243 words
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Corn Domestication - INTRODUCTION Our article title is “The Origin of the Naked Grains of Maize” which introduces the research performed to explain one aspect of the large variation between maize and Mexican teosinte from which maize was domesticated. The paper goes into how maize has evolved from teosinte and the genetic experimentation performed in order to demonstrate that maize evolved from teosinte. This is an interesting research topic because both of their genotypes are so similar yet their phenotypes are so dramatically different that it resulted in a question of whether maize did in fact evolve directly from teosinte and are members of the same species (Zea Mays) or if it is just a completely di...   [tags: Biology]
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Human Cloning - Human Cloning For the last few decades, cloning was a fictitious idea that lay deep within the pages of sci-fi novels and movies. The very idea that cloning could one day become reality was thought to be a scientific impossibility by many experts. But on February 22, 1997, what was thought to be purely science fiction became reality. That day, a team from the Roslin Institute, led by Dr. Ian Wilmut, changed the history forever by revealing what looked like an average sheep. And its name was Dolly....   [tags: Biology] 1541 words
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Homeostasis - Abstract: It is important for organisms to maintain homeostasis in order to survive. An integral component of homeostasis is thermal regulation. Two ways organisms deal with thermoregulation is through behavioral and morphological adaptations. This experiment explores the behavioral adaptation of burrowing and the morphological adaptation of adding feathers in a model organism. It is predicted that burrowing and the addition of feathers will both help maintain homeostasis through thermoregulation....   [tags: Biology] 918 words
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Aquaporin-1 - Background Most modern biology textbooks will tell you that low-molecular-weight molecules like CO2, NH3 (ammonia), and urea cross cell membranes by simple diffusion. Some scientists postulate, however, that specific pores mediate this transport. A recent study conducted to further this hypothesis examines expression of the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) and its enhancing affect on CO2 permeation into cells. Why would scientists challenge the traditional simple diffusion theory. Two strong points of evidence led to this experiment: First, many cell membranes have a very low permeability to small molecules: The outer membranes of some gastric glands allow very little CO2 to enter the cel...   [tags: Biology Aquaporin] 2060 words
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Lichen - Lichen Bright and neutral colors of crumbly material sit upon a boulder that beckons to be noticed. A small child places its hand upon the rock and notices upon withdrawal that small bits of an unknown substance come back, stuck upon the palm. Many people are unaware that this strange substance, called lichen, is actually a plant and thrives and lives upon that boulder. Lichen is a special kind of plant that has its own unique biology, has many different types and classifications, and heavily monitors our environment....   [tags: Plants Biology Environment Horticulture]
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Therapsids - The Amazing Cheesy Adventures of Professor Sanderson's Paleobiology Class. Part 1: Therapsids I hope you guys have as much fun reading this as I did writing it. ^_^ *** The Amazing Cheesy Adventures of Professor Sanderson's Paleobiology Class. Investigation 1: Where did mammals come from. Or: Therapsids. ** Professor Sanderson's class was popular. Partly this was because he was a well-meaning psyinstructor; the images he crafted were neat, cohesive, and usually entertaining. Mainly, though, it was because he was a young male teacher at an all-girls' college, who had the fortune to resemble Jai from "Queer Eye For the Straight Guy." These two factors led to an unnaturally high enrollmen...   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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Epogen - Epogen Epogen is produced by the company Amgen. Amgen located atThousand Oaks, California, is a global biotechnology company. It discovers, develops, manufactures, and markets human therapeutics based on advanced cellular and molecular biology. Amgen, founded in 1980, is now the largest biotechnology company in the world. It has 4,200 employers around the world and 2,700 of the 4,200 workers, work at the headquarters in Thousand Oaks. Amgen has centers of research in "Boulder, Colorado and Toronto, Canada; clinical research centers in Cambridge, England and Melbourne, Australia; the international distribution center in Louisville, Kentucky, fill and finish facility in Junco, Puerto Rico; a...   [tags: Science Biology Papers]
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Interconnected - Interconnected “Loving nature is not the same as understanding it.” Like the majority of the human race, Harriet in Gary Larson’s [JH1] book, There’s a Hair in my Dirt, “‘not only [misunderstand] the things she saw – vilifying some creatures while romanticizing others, - but also her connection to them’” (Larson 1998). The human race is one big Harriet; we see what is on the surface and never truly understand what lies beneath because we fail to even look. In order to understand ourselves, we must first understand what makes us and shapes us....   [tags: Biodiversity Science Biology Essays]
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Rotavirus - Every year it kills approximately 1 Million children world wide. The invader sneakes in unnoticed, takes over, all the while increasing in number as it goes. These children are falling victim to a rotavirus responsible for severe pediatric diarrhea. This rotavirus takes over in the human digestive tract, invading its cells and hijacking its protein synthesis machinery. This inhibits normal protein production in favor of a virus army. Children affected by this have had no chance of recovery, but now a glimmer of hope is visible on the horizon-a cure, whose secret lies in the virus' unique structure-a tunnel, which, like the fate of the virus, could be sealed....   [tags: Biology Protein Synthesis] 712 words
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Mitosis - Mitosis July 21, 2005 Summary In the lab exercise related to Mitosis, we view various slides containing cells undergoing Mitosis. We viewed 2 different specimens; a slide of an onion root tip and a slide of Ascaris eggs. Some of the cells are at different phases of Mitosis (Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase). We viewed it under HPO and LPO. Chromosomes were visible in both the LPO and the HPO although the spindle fibers were not very visible because of limitations in the light microscope....   [tags: Biology] 1116 words
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Microscopy - Microscopy Summary The entire exercise was all about caring for and using the microscope. We performed various activities that enabled us to familiarize ourselves with the parts and uses of the microscope. Using the microscope, we observed different objects such as cotton, silk, hair, and even a letter "e." We viewed it using both the low power objective and the high power objective. We did these activities in order to better understand how the compound light microscope works and also to learn about the different procedures in setting up a slide....   [tags: Biology] 867 words
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Fibromyalgia - Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) is a musculoskeletal illness (which causes chronic pain) and a chronic fatigue disorder. It can also change sleep patterns and cause the following: digestive disorders, chronic headaches, painful menstrual periods, temperature sensitivity, morning stiffness, numbness or tingling of extremities, and even cognitive memory problems. The name fibromyalgia comes from "fibro" in Latin meaning tissue, "my" in Greek meaning muscle, and "algia" (also Greek) meaning pain.(source 5) Because symptoms are wide - ranged and studies for treatment of FMS did not begin until the 1980's, it is one of the most popularly misdiagnosed conditions in the medical world....   [tags: Biology] 623 words
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Enzymes - Introduction: Enzymes are an important part of all metabolic reactions in the body. They are catalytic proteins, able to increase the rate of a reaction, without being consumed in the process of doing so (Campbell 96). This allows the enzyme to be used again in another reaction. Enzymes speed up reactions by lowering the activation energy, the energy needed to break the chemical bonds between reactants allowing them to combine with other substances and form products (Campbell 100). In this experiment the enzyme used was acid phosphates (ACP), and the substrate was p-nitrophenyl phosphate....   [tags: Biology] 1536 words
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Zootherapy - The medicinal use of animals for the benefit of humans, zootherapy, dates all the way back to the medieval period. Many indigenous peoples around the world rely solely on the use of plants and animals for the healing and treatment of their people. These ancient uses of animals have often led to scientific research of the specific uses of animals and compounds developed from animals in modern medicine. The use of leeches is a well-know type of zootherapy that has recently been approved by the FDA....   [tags: Biology] 802 words
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Eutrophication - Eutrophication comes from the Greek word "eutrophos" meaning well-nourished. In other words, this natural process found in water occurs as a result of additional rich nutrients forming a flourish in plant production. At this moment in time, eutrophication is causing worldwide devastation to not only aquatic life, but the fishing industry. The release of nutrients into fresh water lakes, rivers and reservoirs leads to excessive growth of three different plant species: a) Open water algae (phytoplankton) b) Attached algae (periphyton) c) Higher plants (macrophytes) Above all, these organisms encourage the growth of algae, which absorb dissolved oxygen in the water essential for the surviva...   [tags: Biology] 1102 words
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Elephants - People have mentioned that the only thing valuable about elephants is its ivory and that these enormous animals are slow and stupid. Therefore, the uninformed society makes negative assumptions, about things they don't understand, and make false accusations about the gentle creature. For example, people thought they travel in disorganized herds because they're slow and stupid, but the elephants actually travel in organized herds that are always kept together. Our dominant ideology is to portray elephants as killers, unsociable, funny, and illogical creatures....   [tags: Biology] 588 words
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Biofilms - A biofilm is a layer consisting of various combinations of many different organisms, autotrophic and heterotrophic. They are dense, organized communities of cells, encased in a self-produced slime. The bacteria grow together in water like atmospheres, attaching to a solid surface, forming a small ecosystem. Biofilms are known as a micro-environment, a micro-habitat, or a slime matrix. They help decompose dead organisms and recycle carbon and nutrients. Biofilms are formed on almost any surface that is submerged in non sterile water....   [tags: Biology] 1298 words
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