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The Importance of Water in Biology - Task: Design, then execute, a lab protocol to investigate water properties Research question: Is water co-hesive/ ad-hesive. Hypothesis: If we test water's co-hesion and ad-hesion on various papers, it will vary. For example, if we place water on wax paper, it will not be absorbed and thus helps to prove that it is not very ad-hesive as it will stay in a ball and will easily roll off. Also, the water will be easily broken if we were to try separating it using a metal stick, and this will show weak co-hesive forces....   [tags: Lab Report] 539 words
(1.5 pages)
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biology presentation for the skeleton - Intro – slide 1 – acetate 1 The skeleton of a human foetus is formed from tough but flexible cartilage that acts as a blueprint for bone construction. During ossification ( the changing of cartilage to bone) which begins before birth, the cartilage is broken down and the resulting space is filled by bone building mineral salts and protein fibres secreted by bone cells. Humans have a bony endoskeleton made up of 206 bones, although we are born with up to 300, but many of these fuse during childhood....   [tags: essays research papers] 667 words
(1.9 pages)
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Biology, The Five Major Compounds - Compounds That Compose the Human Body There are five major groups of compounds that compose the human body. They are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleotides, and water. These are all very important to humans and without them we would not be able to survive. They have many functions that encourage a human cell and a human body to function. Carbohydrates include sugars and starches, contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen which appears in a ratio of 1:2:1. Carbohydrates are classified according to size as monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides....   [tags: essays research papers] 1150 words
(3.3 pages)
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Cell Biology: The DNA of Both Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes - Driving successfully on the wrong side of the highway requires a bulldozer: Surviving RNAP-Replisome Collisions INTRODUCTION The DNA of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes is populated with thousands of bound proteins in vivo. Among these proteins are the replisome and RNA Polymerase (RNAP). The replisome is a large molecular machine that replicates DNA in living cells. It consists of many individual proteins which vary based on the organism, but in general must consist of DNA polymerase, a helicase, primase, ligase, RNase H, some variation on a single stranded binding protein (SSB), and a gyrase/topoisomerase....   [tags: equity theory, e coli, helicase]
:: 9 Works Cited
1546 words
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Biology: Hydrolysis of Lipids Using an Enzyme Called ‘Lipase’ - Hydrolysis of Lipids Using an Enzyme Called ‘Lipase’ Research and Rationale Enzymes Enzymes are made up of proteins that are available in every cell of a living plant and animal [9] .Enzymes are very important for biochemical reactions. They act as catalysts and speed up biochemical reactions by using ‘an alternative reaction pathway of lower activation energy’ [5].Enzymes either starts a chemical reaction or allows it to occur faster [9]. Enzymes do not experience enduring changes therefore; remain unchanged at the end of the reaction [9]....   [tags: triglycerides, energy, molecule] 2578 words
(7.4 pages)
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Choas Theory In Biology - Chaos In Biological Systems In today’s world of high-tech methods to study just about anything that exists, we are still imperfect. Scientists continue to look for ways to understand, explain, and even predict the actions and reactions of the universe. In the last two centuries, scientists have been looking in every possible place to understand the universe; from science, to math, even religion. They have turned to mathematicians and their strange theories of determinism and predictability. This search to understand the universe has spawned several new areas of science; there are now scientists devoted solely to the research of mere theories, such as chaos theorists....   [tags: essays research papers] 2032 words
(5.8 pages)
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Lab: Which PH Breaks Down Albumin, a Substrase of the Enzyme Pepsin - Task 1 Extended Experimental investigation Factors Affecting Enzyme Action Focus Question: This lab will be driven by the research question, which pH level has the most successful effect on the activity of the enzyme Pepsin (protease) in the breakdown of the substrate, albumin. Introduction: Pearson Baccalaureate: Standard Level Biology Developed Specifically for the IB Diploma describes enzymes as “protein molecules which act as catalysts for reactions. As catalysts, the real function of enzymes is to lower the activation energy of the reactions that they catalyze” (Ward, Tosto, McGonegal, & Damon, 2007)....   [tags: Biology, Protein] 739 words
(2.1 pages)
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The Rapid Development of Functional Genomics - Functional genomics is an area of study within molecular biology which attempts to analyse genetic products, in order to understand the function and interaction of genes, and the proteins produced by them. It is a genome-wide method used under different environmental conditions and the DNA function can be deciphered through a combination of genes, proteins and transcripts. The new approach provides geneticists with the possible answers of understanding how genes interact with one another and analysing DNA sequences of organisms which are unique to biological systems....   [tags: molecular biology] 1972 words
(5.6 pages)
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The Human Genome and DNA Sequencing - ... Firstly dimethyl sulphate selectively attacks purines (Adenine and Guanine) or Hydrazine selectively attacks pyramidines (Cytosine and Thymine) by breaking the glycosidic bond between the base and ribose sugar. *show fig* The piperdine catalyzes the phosphodiester bond cleavage where the base has just been removed. *show fig* Fragments of this cleavage are resolved by size using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Sanger Sequencing In the Sanger method, also called the Chain- termination method, the DNA molecule is firstly denatured using heat so that the DNA splits into its template strand and a complementary strand....   [tags: biology, genetics] 1341 words
(3.8 pages)
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Revealing Metabolic Phenotypes in Plant - Introduction Metabolomics is the ‘omics’ science of metabolism and its definition is in analogy with other part of biological science genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. The metabolome or study of metabolites covers all the compounds formed in a biological system, from an organelle to a whole organism. Also, metabolome can be explained as the entire set of small molecules (non-polymeric compounds with a molecular weight less than ~1000Da) that are found in general metabolic reactions as byproduct and that are biosynthesized by a vital system like cell, tissue or organism....   [tags: Biology Science]
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1626 words
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The Contributions of Olivia Judson - ... One example is the Acarophenax mahunkai, or the common mite, which reproduces through incest (page 169). Judson explains that the male mite copulates with its own sisters. Then, the mothersf stomachs burst, giving birth to numerous mites. The sisters then escape from their brother. Later Judson gives an example of mites moving into a mothfs ear where the mites basically have an incestuous orgy. Then, as eggs hatch and the mites mature, the daughters eventually end up mating with their brothers, sons, and grandsons....   [tags: evolutionary biology] 1755 words
(5 pages)
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The work of Darwin - Although the relation between Economics and Biology is not that apparent at a first glance, both sciences have found overlapping points along their own history. It was Thomas Malthus’s theory about population growth that in some way inspired Charles Darwin to come up with his famous and bedrock theory of evolution through natural selection. More recently, a discussion has been sparked about whether Darwinian ideas can help Economics understand better human behavior. This is because much of the economic theory is based on a stylized conception of man, homo economicus, who thinks and acts rationally, but this stylization ultimately leads to false predictions and poor explanations of historical...   [tags: Economics, Biology]
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1227 words
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Are viruses living entities? - Viruses change every form of life. All life forms can be divided into two states, one that stores and second that acts upon information, to duplicate an organism (Levine 1992). They populate the world between the living and non-living, the ability to duplicate themselves and ones that cannot. Viruses are inherent in organization and their properties are many of secrets of life processes and life (Levine 1992). Viruses may be present in living organisms almost since the origin of life (Levy, Owens 1988)....   [tags: Virus Biology]
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1794 words
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Biology Cell Parts - Nucleus- “the brain” or control center of the cell. The Nucleus, a membrane-bound structure of a cell, plays two crucial roles in controlling the cell. The nucleus carries the cell's genetic information that determines if the organism will develop, for instance, into a tree or a human; and it directs most cell activities including growth, metabolism, and reproduction by controlling protein synthesis. The presence of a nucleus distinguishes the more complex eukaryotic cells of plants and animals from the simpler prokaryotic cells of bacteria and cyanobacteria that lack a nucleus....   [tags: essays research papers] 2776 words
(7.9 pages)
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Biology Coursework: The effect of Trypsin on Gelatine. - Implementing: - 1. First, I gathered the necessary equipment: § Thermostatically controlled water baths § Ice § Thermometer § Stop watch § Test tubes § Photographic film (b/w) § Syringe § Test tube rack § Ruler § Scissors § O.1% trypsin made in pH7 buffer solution § Mounted needle 2. I then decided on the range of results and temperatures I was to investigate. I decided to observe 20º, 30º, 40º, 50º, 60º, 70º and 80º. 3. Next, I label each test tube with the temperature to be investigated and then added 2.5cm3 of Trypsin solution....   [tags: essays research papers] 677 words
(1.9 pages)
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Analysis of Biology of Aloe Vera Plant - Aloe Vera is a member of the Liliaceae family. Also known as Aloe barbadensis, Barbados aloe, and medicinal aloe. (Quattrocchi, 2000) There are nearly five hundred species of aloe, found throughout the world today. These low or stem-less plants that originated from Africa, have prickly margined, pointed leaves that produce a yellowish, “gel” or medicinal sap, when cut. Taonomic Affiliation: The species Aloe Vera is more scientifically known as Aloe barbadenis. It is a member of the Asphodelacea (Liliaceae) family, which has many other similar plants, but A....   [tags: Papers]
:: 3 Works Cited
494 words
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Section 3.1-3.2 Biology 1 Notes - SECTION 3.1 WHERE LIFE HAPPENS 1. Living things can be either uni-cellular (one cell) or multi cellular. A bacteria is one type of unicellular. 2. About 8000 of the smallest bacteria could fit inside one of your red blood cells. 3. The longest cells are the thin nerve cells found in large animals and they can be more than a meter long. 4. The cell with the greatest volume is an unfertilized ostrich egg 5. A cell’s shape is related to its function. For example, a long nerve cell is long and it carries messages from your spine to your toes....   [tags: essays research papers] 1018 words
(2.9 pages)
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Overview of Diabetes - Description of the disease Diabetes is known to be a heterogeneous disorder which has characteristics of persistent hyperglycemia. There are two major types of diabetes that include type 1 diabetes previously referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes and type 2 diabetes previously referred to as non insulin-dependent diabetes. These types of diabetes are known to be caused by a combination of environmental and genetical risk factors. However, we have other diabetes rare forms that are seen to be inherited directly....   [tags: Biology, Medicine]
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1833 words
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Evolving Antibodies - missing diagram Evolving Antibodies The immune system is an elegant system of defense against foreign invaders. It is able to successfully recognize and distinguish between thousands of different antigens. How is such complete recognition possible considering all the various structures foreign bodies may possess. How does the body produce antibodies specific enough to counter so many different pathogens. That is the subject of the recent research article, “Structural Insights into the Evolution of an Antibody Combining Site” (published in Science) by Gary J....   [tags: Biology]
:: 1 Works Cited
896 words
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Cell Migration - Introduction Cell motility is currently one of the “hottest” areas in biology. An example of normal healthy migration is in adult skin, when cells migrate from the inner tissue to the outer layer to form a protective coating of dead skin cells. However, when referring to tumors, cell migration is dangerous. Skin tumors arise in the epidermis. The tumor then invades the dermis, creating a metastatic lesion, which breaks down tissue, including bone. This paper experiments with the two forms of morphology, elongated and rounded....   [tags: Biology]
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1526 words
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The Excretory System - The role of the liver is to filter toxins and remove them from the body in the form of nitrogenous waste. Nitrogenous waste is ammonia, urea and uric acid. In the human body only ammonia and urea are produced and the liver quickly changes the harmful ammonia into the tolerable urea for excretion from the body. Ammonia is toxic to humans in high concentrations (see Table 1). Ammonia is the by-product of protein being broken down. Ammonia is formed by the breakdown of amino acids taken from excess proteins....   [tags: biology, anatomy]
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868 words
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Sample Questions for a Biology Exam or Essay Topics: Viruses and Bacteria - ... The animal with the reservoir acts as a continual source for the virus for other host species. Some examples of this reservoir virus that causes disease in humans include the avian influenza and West Nile encephalitis which is carried in wild birds. Rodents carry viruses that causes Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, mosquitoes carry yellow fever and raccoons carry rabies. 4. Describe the general viral replication cycle.p326 The general viral replication is like a car assembly factor it starts with attachments which bind virus cell surface receptor....   [tags: Organisms, Structure] 799 words
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Synthetic Biology: Transplanting an Artificial DNA to a Living Bacterium Mycoplasma - ... This is followed by transplanting the artificial DNA into a living bacterium Mycoplasma capricolum with its own DNA. They then allowed the bacterium which now contains both artificial and synthetic DNA to multiply. This means that the daughter bacteria will contain both artificial and authentic DNA. To remove the authentic DNA bacteria, they used an antibiotic that kills the bacteria with authentic DNA but not the bacteria with artificial DNA. They then allowed the artificial bacteria to produce proteins....   [tags: prokaryotic and eukaryotic] 554 words
(1.6 pages)
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Biology: Determining the Lengths of Telomeres Using Flow FISH Method - Flow FISH is a method for determining the lengths of telomeres which is common nowadays due to its versatility, its more rapid and its able to process samples which contain few cells (Lansdorp,1996). The major limitation of flow-FISH is the requirement of the equipment to do the analysis which is expensive, the configuration of the equipment (flow cytometer) and the nature of the probe used for hybridization is also expensive and requires a well trained personnel. Flow-FISH involves hybridisation of telomeric DNA of fixed sample cells with a fluorescently labeled peptide-nucleotide probe with sequence which is complementary to the telomere repeat DNA sequences....   [tags: dna sequence, rna] 1172 words
(3.3 pages)
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Vertebrate Adaptions for Terrestrial Life - Vertebrate Adaptions For Terrestrial Life AP-Biology Essay on vertebrate structural adaptations for terrestrial life.      The problems of survival of animals on land are very different from those of survival of animals in aquatic environment. Describe four problems associated with animal survival in terrestrial environments but not in aquatic environments. For each problem, explain a physiological of structural solution.      Four problems faced by animals on land are breathing (respiration), water conservation in excretions, successful reproduction, and the producing an egg which can survive outside of the water....   [tags: AP-Biology Biology] 619 words
(1.8 pages)
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Statement of Purpose for My Bachelor's Degree at University of Roskilde - ... In A levels, I studied biology which gave me an academic foundation that is necessary for a career in science and provided me with knowledge of how human life evolved. Mathematics helped me solve problems from different angles and work in a logical and critical manner. These subjects gave me a drive to further my education in science and learn more about how it shapes our planet. The aspects of natural science program that attracts me the most is the multidisciplinary course which holds a unique opportunity, where I could freely choose which subjects that I want to study....   [tags: natural science, biology, culture] 547 words
(1.6 pages)
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The Effect Of Substrate Concentration On The Activity Of The Enzyme Catalase - The Effect Of Substrate Concentration On The Activity Of The Enzyme Catalase A Level Biology Project Aims This is an experiment to examine how the concentration of the substrate hydrogen peroxide affects the rate of reaction of the enzyme catalase. Introduction This is a real A-level school project and as such is intended for educational or research purposes only. Extracts of this project must not be included in any projects that you submit for marking. Doing this could lead to being disqualified from all the subjects that you are taking....   [tags: biology experiment, chemistry experiment] 2003 words
(5.7 pages)
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Feminism and the Neurological Body by Elizabeth Wilson - ... It is surely not uncommon to see people carry around different kinds of disinfectant sprays and other chemical products in order to reduce the amount of bacteria and germs on their skin and in their body. However, the fact is that distal human intestine represents “an anaerobic bioreactor programmed with an enormous population of bacteria.” The study was conducted in order to assess the influence of microbiota on the energy storage in mice raised without exposure to any microorganisms compared to the control group that had acquired a microbiota since birth....   [tags: human biology, digestion system] 1222 words
(3.5 pages)
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Physical Anthropology: The Link between Human Nature - Physical anthropology “is in large part, human biology seen from an evolutionary perspective” (Jurmaln, Kilgore & Trevathan, 2011). By this statement, I believe the authors mean that physical anthropology studies human biology with an evolutionary viewpoint rather than a scientific or medical viewpoint. Anthropology, as a broader science, is concerned with and studies human culture and the evolutionary aspects of human biology. Since culture affects human beings and human beings affect culture, the two are intertwined, and it therefore, makes sense to study them together....   [tags: anthropology, human biology, genetcs]
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Is the Body a Social Construction? - ... It is believed that gender is socially constructed by many sociologists, although biological differences which seperate bodies from being either male or female are apparent, gender can also be seen to be mostly created by society, also varying between societies, showing it not to be completely natural. Firstly, the two sexes can be distinguished from one another through differences in genes, brains and hormones according to Harlambos and Holborn (1995), this therefore highlights gender to be a natural occurrence....   [tags: biology, gender, class] 1440 words
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Genome Assembly for Draft Genome Sequence of Sphingobium Lucknowense Strain F2T Isolated from an HCH Dumpsite in Ummari Village, India - Genome Assembly for Draft Genome Sequence of Sphingobium lucknowense strain F2T Isolated from an HCH Dumpsite in Ummari Village,Lucknow,India. INTRODUCTION: Since the dawn of intelligence science has been striding forward with innovations from every corner of the world. Biology has been making advent at a slightly greater pace,out of the laboratory and into silicon chips,Since days bygone, study of living beings required to break barriers of the single cell and throw light into hereditary material,giving us great insights into nucleic acid sequences.To face the challenges associated with various questions thrown at biology,great advent required being made in the field of working out the co...   [tags: biology research, bacteria]
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2455 words
(7 pages)
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Charles Darwing and The Theory of Evolution - ... In October 1825 Darwin went to Edinburgh University where his grandfather studied to study medicine with a view to becoming a physician. He soon realized that he does not like the study of medicine and could not bear the sight of blood or suffering. So here changed schools and went to Cambridge to become a clergyman. Then he soon noticed he would like to be a naturalist. His theory of evolution by natural selection is what he is best known for today and is now the unifying theory of life sciences explained where all of the mindbogglingly heterogeneous kinds of living things came from and how they became exquisitely adapted to their particular environments....   [tags: biology, galapagos, natural selection]
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807 words
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Overview of the Importance of DNA - Discoveries in DNA, cell biology, evolution, and biotechnology have been among the major achievements in biology over the past 200 years with accelerated discoveries and insight’s over the last 50 years. Consider the progress we have made in these areas of human knowledge. Present at least three of the discoveries you find to be the most important and describe their significance to society, heath, and the culture of modern life. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a self-replicating molecule or material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent in chromosomes....   [tags: biology, evolution, biotechnology]
:: 8 Works Cited
1575 words
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Relative and Absolute Quantitative Real-Time PCR - Relative and Absolute quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) Introduction Quantitative Real-Time in PCR (qRT-PCR) The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a revolutionized technology used in molecular biology for detection and amplification of DNA generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction PCR (RT-QPCR) is regarded as the golden standard technique in molecular biology and has been seen as a bench-marking analytic for DNA and mRNA detection, this technique is also used in a wide variety of bio-analytical science areas (Burns et al, 2005)....   [tags: molecular biology, DNA]
:: 12 Works Cited
1991 words
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A Look Into the Past: Jean Piaget's Life and Work - This paper will present an over view of Jean Piaget’s life. It will focus on details of his personal life, his contributions to psychology, his historical development, and his present contributions to his career. Jean Piaget’s research in developmental psychology and genetic epistemology answered the question: How does knowledge grow. Piaget’s findings have been and continue to be an inspiration to fields like psychology, sociology, education, epistemology, economics and law. Jean Piaget was born on August 9, 1896, in the town of Neuchatel which is part of the French-speaking region of Switzerland....   [tags: psychology, biology, informative, biography]
:: 11 Works Cited
2994 words
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Analysis of the Impact of Science on Society - ... In addition to this, the dynamics affecting human health are biologically examined and solutions also found using biological principles. It is the branch of biology that studies the dynamics of all living things to determine how these creatures and plants interact together. As new diseases continue to be discovered, the society’s health now entirely depends on the biological research effectiveness to bring forth medication that help in treating these diseases or preventing those which can be prevented....   [tags: biology, genetically modified products] 1277 words
(3.6 pages)
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Earth is the Planet of the Plants - ... Photovoltaic cells turn the solar energy into flowing electrons, meanwhile, plant cells turn it into plant food – and shares that knowing which one is better, the legislators could have a better idea to approve either biofuels or solar electricity. In order to try and find an answer to their very complex question (which model is better at capturing solar energy?), some biologists, and chemists, developed an experiment. Their experiment was based on how each cell stores energy, and how it is developed....   [tags: biology, photosynthesis, organic] 835 words
(2.4 pages)
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The Science Community is Constantly Advancing Technology - ... Polyclonal antibodies are secreted from multiple B cells and secrete a specific antibody they are also able to react with many epitopes on the same antigen (A-109). The other type of antibodies which have been developed are monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies are produced from a single clone of B cells and recognise a single antigen. This class of antibodies is able to be generated in the laboratory and are widely used in research and vaccines. (E-106). As antibodies are a form of protein they are encoded on different genes throughout DNA....   [tags: biology, antibodies, heath] 1457 words
(4.2 pages)
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Business Analysis for Harris and Harris Group - Harris & Harris Group Since 1983, Harris & Harris Group has a strong reputation for investing in companies with proprietary technology. Their main focus is on interdisciplinary life science companies, where innovative biology intersects with innovation in areas such as electronics, chemistry, physics, materials, information, technology, engineering and mathematics. Harris & Harris Group differs from competitors because their investments are not divided into specific funds. Currently, they invest in 25 small portfolio companies with total investments equaling $172 million....   [tags: valuation, biology, technology] 1351 words
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How I Pursued My PhD as a Middle Eastern Woman - From the beginning entering the gradate school was one of my main aims but the issue of how to fund my Ph.D. graduate school education was a major obstacle. In the Middle East there is an obvious lack of human rights and more particularly for women. Thus, it is quite hard to apply for a scholarship for graduate school and men have a complete advantage in any scholarship if existed. In 2012 I joined UWM as a second Bachelor degree in Biological science. I was fortunate to be a student in Dr. Timothy J....   [tags: scholarship, student, biology] 531 words
(1.5 pages)
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Introduction to The World of Biotechnology - 1. Introduction To Biotechnology According to Campbell et al. (2008) biotechnology is the manipulation of organism or their components to make useful products. The word “Biotechnology” originates from the word “Biology” and “Technology”. By looking at the word, we can say that biotechnology is a technology based on biology. Human had practiced biotechnology since centuries ago mostly involving food. Biotechnology can be classify into two; traditional and modern biotechnology. Traditional biotechnology is a way of using living organism to make new product or manipulate the existing ones....   [tags: genes, cells, dna, biology]
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Extremely Controversial Topic of Human Cloning - ... Ever since then, cloning has taken leaps and bounds on its way to the present. Cloning has become so advanced, that we are now able to grow things such as ears and more effective skin grafts. The relative newness of human cloning, even cloning in general is a viable cause for its funding and further exploration. For example, the first moving artificial hand was invented by Benjamin Palmer in the early 1900's, laid the base for the kickoff of the artificial limb program in 1945, which exploded within a few years....   [tags: geneological, biology, medical] 604 words
(1.7 pages)
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The Use of HPL Chromatography for Separation and Detection of Amino Acid in Plasma - Currently a period of rapid chromatography heyday is undergoing, its scope is extremely wide and includes sectors such as biotechnology, medicine, forensics, organic synthesis, environmental monitoring, obtaining ultrapure substances, analysis of space objects and more. A special place in the list of chromatographic methods takes liquid chromatography - the most versatile method of analysis based on non-destructive separation of substances. The latter allows applying liquid chromatography not only as an analytical, but also as a unique technological method for the isolation and purification of substances, when other methods are ineffective....   [tags: isolation, purification, substances, biology]
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1883 words
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The Natural History of the Galapagos Written by Ian Thornton - The theory of evolution is a very interesting, but also a bit of a controversial topic. The Merriam Webster dictionary defines evolution as “a theory that the differences between modern plants and animals are because of changes that happened by a natural process over a very long time.” Even though many people would and have disagreed with this following statement, the theory of evolution as of now is the best the best way of explaining why people and the animals which are, are on earth today. Like all scientific discoveries the theory of evolution had to be discovered by someone, and this someone’s name was Charles Darwin....   [tags: theory of evolution, darwing, biology]
:: 5 Works Cited
1140 words
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Study of Living Things and the Scientific Study of Life - The process of change that transformed life on Earth is called evolution. A result of evolution would be an organism's adaptations to its environment such as adaptations to conserve water. The world is full of different organisms who came from a single celled ancestor. We study all of these living things and the scientific study of life and living things is called is called biology. Everything is organized into different levels in a hierarchy. The first level is the biosphere which is basically the whole world....   [tags: evolution, biology, ecosystem] 2222 words
(6.3 pages)
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Focus of Research of Viral Infections Involves Neurodegenerative Diseases - ... The process of retrograde transport describes the virus' transit starting with entry at the nerve terminal, followed by transportation of viral particles in the axon to neuronal cell body where it can deposit its DNA in the nucleus (Antinone and Smith 2010). In mice models (Lewandowski, Zimmerman et al. 2002), it has been shown that HSV-1 inhibit apoptosis of infected neurons allowing for invasion of the brain. HSV-1 that are latent, upon reactivation can travel by axonal transport to spread newly produced virions that target the hippocampus and cerebral cortex....   [tags: herpes simplex, biology, alheimers] 1772 words
(5.1 pages)
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Development and Composition of Middle Ear Structures of Balaenopteroids - ... The high density of this pachyosteosclerotic bone suggests it is resistant to diagenetic alteration, making the involucrum a potential proxy for teeth in edentulous mysticetes and an ideal candidate to facilitate the use of trace element analysis and stable isotope ecology to infer the paleoecology of fossil whales. METHODS The first step of the process, completed in April 2014, was to confirm the existence of the three “zones” within the tympanoperiotic region in a single balaenid (Balaena mysticetus) previously sectioned and then sampled using a Carpenter Microsystem CM-2 microsampler drill along 34 transects across the length of the involucrum....   [tags: fossil cetacean paleocology and biology] 1334 words
(3.8 pages)
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Comparison of Genetic Information In Eukaryotes And Prokaryotes - Comparison of Genetic Information In Eukaryotes And Prokaryotes As for organisms in the world from humans to the smallest microbe, they directly reflect upon biodiversity, in respect to the appearance, size and expression. The reason behind this is caused by the genetic material found in each and every cell that composes each organism. Given that there are two types of cell organizations found in life, comparison of both ‘eukaryote’ and ‘prokaryote’ genomes will provide a better understanding for such diversity....   [tags: Biology, Genomes, Prokaryotes] 1557 words
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Exocrine Secretions in Boisea trivittata Increase Over Time - Introduction The species under study in this experiment is Boisea trivittata, more commonly known as the Box elder bug. This insect, common throughout North America, has few natural predators. B. trivittata’s main defense mechanism is the secretion of foul smelling odors. The broad goal of the experiment is to infer whether genes responsible for B. trivittata’s odor appeared early in the species’ history and have remained unchanged throughout time, or if the ‘odor’ genes are capable of continually changing over time, thus becoming more concentrated....   [tags: Entomology, Evolutionary Biology] 1131 words
(3.2 pages)
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Mimicry and Survival of the Fittest - In evolutionary biology, when species have the same resemblance to another, common characteristics mimic one another. These similarities can be categorized in physical appearance, behavior, sound, scent, and location with particular mimics found in identical places to their models. Mimicry appears when a group of species, the mimics, develop to contribute common characteristics with another group, the models. Another form of mimicry, camouflage resembles the species surroundings and makes animals or objects difficult to see....   [tags: evolutionary biology perspective] 576 words
(1.6 pages)
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Taking a Look at Günter Blobel - ... This was an unforgettably sad day that Blobel will remember forever. Luckily, it was not long before the war came to an end, but the months before and after were miserable and hard as his family had to live separated with no communication and little food. Then, on September 9, 1945, he learned that his oldest sister, Ruth, who was only 19, was killed after a train she was travelling on was struck by an air raid. The two had a very close, sisterly relationship, so the news of her death left him and his family deeply sadden....   [tags: Nobel Prize Laureate in biology] 559 words
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Alternatives for Animal Dissection - One of the breadth requirements for every student in college is to take a biological or life science course. When it comes to Biology, Anatomy, and few other sciences, one needs to learn about the body parts and the functions. Books explain all the information, but hands on learning is better so animal specimen are used for dissections and experiments. But is this the only way to learn about the body. There are students that find it disturbing when they look at a dead corpse or are against using animals....   [tags: life science, anatomy, biology]
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Comparing Mammal Species Across Different Habitats - ... Each skeletal feature was analyzed for length versus width ratio. Length versus width ratios were taken from these bones and compared across the different species studied to determine if there were clear differences in morphology that would allow for better adaptation to a marine environment. The data was then compiled into different histograms to visually display the morphological ratio differences between species. Given the amount of data ratios, the traits exhibiting the largest difference in ratio across the several species were chosen for this study....   [tags: marine mammal biology, studies]
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Medical School and Low Aceptance Rate - About less than 300 students get accepted per year, depending on the medical school it can be less than that. If they raised their acceptance rate, more students would be able to go to medical schools, including myself. Since I want to attend medical school in the future, I have researched the acceptance rates and have seen that it is very low. I understand that is very competitive, but the way I see it, it is too extreme. Medical schools in California should increase their acceptance rate because of how low their rate is....   [tags: students, biology, chemistry, physics]
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Taking a Look at Brain Mapping - ... The medial prefrontal cortex is associated with the processing of risk and fear. Lesions in this area can affect emotions and decision making. This area of the brain is what lets us know it’s not okay to hurt someone or to take crazy risks. Images of the brain can show doctors if a person has a medial prefrontal cortex that looks abnormal. This can help them figure out why some people act different than other people. A newborn’s brain is a lot smaller than a developed brain because it needs to fit the child's head....   [tags: cellular biology, imaging] 707 words
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Signs and Symptoms of Gigantism - Introduction Biology mainly concentrates on the study of life and any other factors that affect it positively or negatively. The study of biology is further sub-divided into sections and the most important being genetics that studies the genetically composition and effects to human life. For instance, gigantism which is an abnormal growth caused by the excess hormone growth at childhood before the bone plates closes. Though gigantism is rare, it is caused due to some factors among them; Noncancerous tumor of the pituitary gland, Neurofibromatosis, McCune-Albright Syndrome (MAS), Carney complex and Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1(MEN-1)....   [tags: Biology, Growth Hormones]
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Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation - In today’s day in age, different sexualities and gender identities are quickly becoming more accepted in mainstream society. Despite this change, there are many people who believe that having a different sexual orientation or gender identity is a choice that is frowned upon. In order to refute this belief, research and biology of the brain is necessary. Researching the brain on the basis of sexuality is a fairly new topic of discussion because it is somewhat difficult and confusing. This paper will explore the different identities of gender, sex and sexual orientation and the main biological reasons behind these....   [tags: sexuality, biology, children, psychology]
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3600 words
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Division and Fusion in Mitochondria - Division and Fusion in Mitochondria Mitochondria are essential organelles in many cells. Each component of mitochondria have distinct roles that they must partake in for the sake of the cell’s survival. Mitochondria have their own genetic system that encodes directions for the mitochondria’s different processes. Oxidative phosphorylation, an activity that is necessary to the cell takes place within the mitochondria, along with electron transport. Mitochondria also take part in processes that benefit themselves, including fusion and division (Hales, 2010)....   [tags: cellular biology, parkinson's disease]
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Bone - The epidemiology study in Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Scotland reported the incidence of fracture in 2000 which was 5,953 fractures in a population of 534,715 (11.3 in 1,000). (1) In general, the bone has a physiologic repairing process which consists of three basic steps; inflammation, proliferation and remodeling and the fracture can be healed spontaneously. (2) Failure of physiological regeneration of these steps which might cause the fracture nonunion. (3)This pathologic condition is one of the important complications after treatment fracture which occurs about 5-10% (Littenberg et al., 1998, Tzioupis and Giannoudis, 2007)....   [tags: Biology] 694 words
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Charles Darwin and Natural Selection - One of the most influential people in modern day biology and geology is Charles Darwin. His advances in the fields still have impact to this day. His theory of Natural Selection made tidal waves through the scientific community all across the world. Darwin’s theories and studies are still a topic of conflict. Many Christians still dispute his theories, standing strong to their ideas of Creationism. Biographical Information On February 12, 1809 one of the mostly highly respected and controversial scientists was born (“Charles Darwin”)....   [tags: Creationism, Biology, Science]
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Survival of the Sickest Questions - KoAP Biology Summer Assignment: Survival of the Sickest Questions 1. Life is more abundant in the North Atlantic than in the Pacific because the ocean area of the North Atlantic is directly in the path of iron-rich dust from the Sahara Desert, which leads to the development of bigger communities of phytoplankton, and in turn plankton, and so on. This fact is related to global warming because someone thought of an idea to fight global warming by putting huge amounts of iron solution into the ocean so that extreme plant growth would occur and these plants would remove enough carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere to counter the negative effects of humans....   [tags: KoAP Biology Summer Assignment] 3065 words
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The Nature Versus Nurture Debate - People can get their blue, hazel, or brown eyes from one of their parents, and their freckles from the other. But where does their talent for singing, or knack for craftsmanship come from. In other words, what makes individuals who they are. Is it predetermined in their genes or was it taught to them by family or friends. My General Psychology instructor recently explained this contest of nature and nurture as won by neither side. “The nature versus nurture debate is one of the oldest issues in psychology....   [tags: learning, environment, biology] 740 words
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How Does the Brain Work? - ... In the body there a lot of cells with different functions. They grow and divide to help the body function normally. Cells are suppose to die once they get old and a new cell replaces it. But if they don't die, the cells start growing out of control forming new and abnormal cells. Cancer starts developing when the normal control mechanism in the body ceases to function (CTCA 3). The extra cells eventually start forming a mass of tissue called a tumor. Leukemia is a cancer which does not have a tumor....   [tags: biology, neurological disorder, cancer] 1738 words
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Lactobacillus Johnsonii Bacteria Research - The bacteria, Lactobacillus johnsonii, is known to be a probiotic. Probiotics are defined to be “friendly bacteria” in which have many health aspects in the body. Lactobacillus Johnsonii and many other probiotics are mainly found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. L. johnsonii is also a part of the acidophilus complex where it is linked to other Lactobacilli to promote some health aspects such as increased immune function7. An average BIOL 329 student should understand that even though L....   [tags: acidophilus complex,probiotic,biology]
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Marine and Environmental Sciences - “Wherever water goes, so do I.” This quote from my interview with Susan Myers quite effortlessly sums up everything I have felt when searching for my future career. Our oceans, estuaries, and other bodies of water are an expansive, astounding part of the planet that humans have not yet fully explored. Each day we find new amazing creatures, chemicals, and processes. With such potential for massive discoveries, any scientific mind understands my attraction to this field. This is why I would like to go into marine or environmental sciences and be someone who takes data on various ecosystems or a conservationist like a park ranger....   [tags: biology, college, career, environment] 896 words
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The Roles of Water in Living Organisms and as an Environment for the Organisms - The Roles of Water in Living Organisms and as an Environment for the Organisms Without water there would be no life on Earth; this is why water is the most important biochemical of all. In "Human Biology" by J.M Orten and O.W. Nevhans, it is suggested that 70% of all body weight is water, most of which is found in three major compartments: 70% intracellular fluid, 20% interstitial fluid (lymph) and 7% blood plasma, and only 3% in other compartments. By volume, nearly a half of each of our organs consist of water; amounting to approximately 10 gallons of water, of which most is in our cells....   [tags: Biology Essays] 539 words
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Creating New Enzyme Actions De Novo - ABSTRACT Enzymes are molecules, specifically proteins that catalyze chemical reactions. Enzymes, like all catalysts, accelerate the rate of a reaction by lowering the activation energy. Nucleic acid RNA molecules called ribozymes can also act as enzymes and catalyze reactions. The development of new enzymes for the synthesis of chemical reactions, pharmaceuticals, and tools for molecular biology is a new and upcoming interest. Work has previously been done in the development for modifying and improving already existing enzymes....   [tags: Biology Catalyst] 1726 words
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New Tissue Engineered Bone - 1.1 Regenerative Medicine 1.1.1 Tissue Engineering Tissue engineering uses natural biology principles and engineering to develop materials that can be used to restore, maintain, improve or enhance natural regeneration of tissue function. Tissue engineering is a potential solution to help increase the length of life, alleviate the current shortage of donor tissue. On average, 2.2 million annual bone grafting procedures are carried out globally, with most using biological autograph tissue (Malak and Anderson, 2008)....   [tags: tissue engineering, regeneration, biology]
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Biotechnology a New Beginning - The world of biology and technology has been getting blurred more and more throughout the years. Undoubtedly you have asked someone the question why you look the way you do. There are also billions of dollars spent each and every week where people are trying to change the ways we look. Science might hold the answers to the question as to how people will be able to change their looks or much more. The key to everything is all in our genetic makeup. All of our features come down to our genetics. More than just our physical appearance these genes, our intelligence, tempers as well as all the hereditary diseases we have or will likely develop within our lifetimes....   [tags: biology, dna discovery, genetics]
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Bird Species in Belize - ... Smilax tendrils, also called cat claw, were used as a form of birth control. Aerial roots are a favorite of the black howler monkeys. The roots can be smoked and help people quit smoking. The cohune have many uses such as: makes furniture, rings, wine, massage oil, stops infections and more. The miconia leaves have an orange substance at the end that is used as a ringworm cure. Purple vervines is used as a treatment of leukemia. Melastoma leaves are favored by monkeys, very soft and can be a replacement to toilet paper....   [tags: mutualism relationships, biology, ecology] 1573 words
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Insulin Resistance and Exercise - This is a discussion of research article listed at end of paper When muscle is damaged, there is a general resistance to insulin. The physiological stress that is associated with damaged muscle impairs how insulin stimulates IRS-1, PI 3-kinase, and Akt-kinase. This presumably leads to less glucose absorption. Previous studies have shown that there has been temporary insulin resistance due to the physiological stress associated with muscle damage. However, the molecular mechanisms by which physiological stress induces insulin resistance is not known....   [tags: Biology Muscle]
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Benefits of Human Cloning - What is cloning. "Cloning is the process of making a genetically identical organism through nonsexual means."(www.Howstuffworks.com) It has been used for thousands of years to produce plants. The next stage was to clone animals. Scientists can take unfertilized eggs of some small animals, and clone them, so they develop into full adults. After knowing that people realized how great it would be if we could clone humans. There would be a lot of advantages in cloning humans. Lets say someone will die if they can't get a heart transplant....   [tags: Clones Biology] 927 words
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Tissue Engineering - Tissue engineering is a field which involves biology, medicine, and engineering. It aims at restoring, maintaining and enhancing tissue and organ function by implanting natural, synthetic or semi-synthetic tissue and bioartificial organs that are fully functional from the beginning, or that grow into the required functionality (Nature Publishing Group., 2014). It is emerging as a potential alternative or complimentary solution for organ failure. Basic Tissue Engineering Principles (Castells-Sala, et al., 2013)....   [tags: Biology, Medicine]
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Advancements in Biotechnology - Discoveries in DNA, cell biology, evolution, and biotechnology have been among the major achievements in biology over the past 200 years with accelerated discoveries and insight’s over the last 50 years. Consider the progress we have made in these areas of human knowledge. Present at least three of the discoveries you find to be the most important and describe their significance to society, heath, and the culture of modern life. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a self-replicating molecule or material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent in chromosomes....   [tags: DNA, biology, genetics]
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Post-Transcriptional RNA Editing - ... Due to the importance of the claim in the paper several other groups raised issues about the validity of the RDD sites. The conclusion was that the majority of the RDD sites are false positives due to technical issues. Sequencers usually don't sequence the mRNA molecules directly. Rather RNA is converted into CDNA, the CDNA is shared into small fragments of about 50-100 nucleotides each, each fragment is sequenced and then the fragments are assembled through mapping to a known reference. Due to the large number of non-unique parts of the genome the mapping process is not straightforward and special attention needs to be paid to map the correct fragments together in the correct spots in t...   [tags: cellular biology and genetics]
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Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy - Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is a technique that is part of a broader range of techniques that are commonly referred to as scanning probe microscopy. It has a wide array of applications in chemistry, biology, and even the material sciences. SECM uses a ultramicroelectrode to measure the local electrochemical behavior of a substrate in a solution. When introduced, the ultramicroelectrode acts as the electron conductor in the substrate and the added electrolyte acts as the ionic conductor in the solution....   [tags: chemistry, biology, instrument]
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Genetic of Aging - What is aging. Everyone can give an answer to this question, which is a process when the body begins to change as time goes by. However, the proximal cause of aging remains one of the unsolved problems in biology. Researchers have found that genetics has a role in aging, which it determined the life span (Larsen, 2001). Aging can occur in many fundamental ways, which can be determined by a program driven by genes or by random, accidental events, or by diseases or stress (Aging Genes, 2008). Firstly, DNA and genes are made of proteins....   [tags: biology, dna, body change]
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The Galapagos Islands - The Galapagos Islands, located about 600 miles west of continental Ecuador, contain a rich history of settlement and exploration and represent a living example of evolution that is still relevant today. For centuries, this chain of volcanic islands has been used uniquely by various cultures based off distinct needs. What has remained the same however is the fact that island isolation has forced many animal and plant species to adapt differently from one another based off their island’s environmental conditions, creating a living model of microevolution over time....   [tags: biology, evolution, conservation]
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The Understanding of Behavior and the Brain - The Understanding of Behavior and the Brain The trend of neurobiology and physiology predicting and causing behavioris not a new fact. So many illnesses and diseases are now attributed to biological mechanisms. A recent article in Newsweek comments on how those in the field of psychology and neuroscience are beginning to stress the fact that certain brain mechanisms account for mental illnesses and particular behaviors. Doctors seem to blame their patients peculiarities on a biologically based mental illness, rather then seeing them as individual responses to lifes circumstances (Begley 1998)....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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An Investigation to Show How Water Temperature and Alcohol Concentration Affect Membrane Permeability - An Investigation to Show How Water Temperature and Alcohol Concentration Affect Membrane Permeability Aim The aim of the experiment is to show the cell’s membrane permeability is affected by being placed into different temperatures of water. Also the effect of placing beetroot in to different concentrations of alcohol. Beetroot cells contain a red sap, which leaks out of the cells if their membranes are damaged or altered. Cell membranes are made up of a bilayer of phospholipids, which also contains proteins....   [tags: Biology Lab Report]
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