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field biology projects - I intend on doing a regular project and an extra credit project. For my first project I will start a recycling process in my home. I don’t want to make it too hard on my family so it will consist of aluminum objects and plastics. I will run this and accumulate materials for two weeks. After I will take pictures to illustrate what I have accomplished with my family and write a general knowledge paper on how it affected my home and the environment. It is my assumption that in order to have sex once you have finished....   [tags: essays research papers] 389 words
(1.1 pages)
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The State of Georgia vs. Evolutionary Biology - The State of Georgia vs. Evolutionary Biology Douglas J. Futuyma, in Evolutionary Biology defined evolution as, "...change in the properties of populations of organisms that transcend the lifetime of a single individual. The ontogeny of an individual is not considered evolution; individual organisms do not evolve. The changes in populations that are considered evolutionary are those that are inheritable via the genetic material from one generation to the next." (1) Like most of the population, I've never picked up a copy of Evolutionary Biology and have only recently thought about the most correct definition of the term....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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799 words
(2.3 pages)
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Biology Enzymes Coursework - Biology Enzymes Coursework Prediction: I think that the enzyme will work best at 45.c to 50.c I think this because that optimum temperature for most natural enzymes is 40.c but his is a chemical enzyme so it will work best a little higher. If this temp is exceeded then I think that it will take longer to work because it will not be at the optimum temp, or it will not work at all because it has become denatured. An enzyme cannot recover from this state....   [tags: Papers] 583 words
(1.7 pages)
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Biology Key Skills - Biology Key Skills Poodles make more poodles. Sheep make more sheep. Replication is a basic fact of life. All living things make other living things that are to one degree or another duplicates of themselves. What is the mechanism behind all this. The answer lies in a molecule called DNA. In 1869, Friedrich Miescher extracted a substance, which he called nuclein from the nuclei of white blood cells. Nuclein later became known as nucleic acid. Living cells contain two kinds of nucleic acids-ribonucleic acid (RNA) which contains the sugar, ribose and deoxyribonucleic (DNA) which contains the sugar, deoxyribose....   [tags: Papers] 1813 words
(5.2 pages)
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Wiring Up Biology - Wiring Up Biology WHEN the commonplaces of one discipline are applied to an unrelated field, they can prove curiously fruitful. In 1952 two British physiologists, Alan Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley, managed just such a fruitful crossover, applying textbook physics to living tissue. They were both later knighted, and shared a Nobel prize in 1963. The experimental method they pioneered remains fundamental to research into the behaviour of nerve cells. As anyone who has ever had an electric shock knows, electricity has powerful effects on living matter....   [tags: Papers] 1539 words
(4.4 pages)
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Correlations between Biology and Male Homosexuality - Correlations Between Biology and Male Homosexuality Homosexuality, one of the many different sexual behaviors exhibited by humankind, has been rejected, persecuted, and denied. Are the studies that attempt to find causation moral. Is this search for the "why" of homosexuality a continuation of the heterosexist assumption that heterosexuality is normal and homosexuality abnormal. Are assumptions being made that homosexuality is a disease and should therefore be treated medically. Is the research currently being done heterosexist....   [tags: Science Scientific Research Papers]
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3553 words
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Science and Religion: A Christian's Response to Biology - Science and Religion: A Christian's Response to Biology Introduction In the beginning, God created...the earth and the heavens, or an evolving mass of matter, later to become the heavens and the earth. The conflict between science and religion is a hot topic in many intellectual circles today. One of the more controversial topics is creation versus evolution. How did the world get to where it is right now. How was creation initiated. Is there a Creator or was life created spontaneously. These are some of the questions that boggle minds and set people searching for answers....   [tags: Bible Religion Essays]
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2748 words
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My Desire to Understand Life Compels Me to Study Biology - My desire to understand life is a huge intellectual challenge, because living things are the most complex structures we know of. By studying biology, I hope to gain adequate knowledge about the structure and complexity of living things and to establish a strong connection between the mundane explanations and details offered in my A-level biology text book. Understanding life is central to humanity's survival, because most of the looming pressure on our species - climate change, environmental degradation , emergent diseases , and population growth - impact on us via their effects on organisms ....   [tags: career choices] 585 words
(1.7 pages)
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Individuals Educated in Biology or Who Are Health Conscious Are Opposed to the Genetic Modification of Foods - ... What are the reasons behind educated people being against GM. Although I did not have a set question that linked to this, It was something that was extremely interesting to me when investigating this topic. Through the questions that I did ask, I managed to deduce why I think the majority of people form opinions that are against GM products. I think that people who are ‘educated’ and who have learnt about GM in school or at university are provided with very limited, simplified knowledge relating to the subject are only taught the negative aspects of this technology....   [tags: GMOs, dangers to health]
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1314 words
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The Trouble With Testosterone and The Biology of the Human Predicament by Robert M. Sapolsky - Many behavioral biologists seek answers to the mysterious interactions between the human’s minds and bodies. Robert M. Sapolsky, American neurosurgeon, neuroscientist, professor of biology at Stanford University, researcher and author of the book The Trouble With Testosterone and Other Essays on the Biology of the Human Predicament. This book shows the reader why people act the way they do and what goes on when an event occurs. Sapolsky covered many topics about the human body and brain and how they are related to his area of research....   [tags: biologists, neurosurgeon]
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1209 words
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The Importance of the Biology/Society Dualism to the Gendered Body - The Importance of the Biology/Society Dualism to the Gendered Body The body has played an important part in sociology to explain the differences between the two sexes, and why these differences exist. A lot of social debate is about the relationship between the biological and the social. At one end of the debate there are those who see activities such as sexual behaviour entirely based on biology, they are called biological determinists who argue that there is biological bases for child rearing and different sexual orientations and also refer to pre- programmed behaviour....   [tags: Dualism Essays] 2248 words
(6.4 pages)
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Free College Admissions Essays: Biology and Psychology - Biology and Psychology University has always appealed to me because of the wealth of experiences it has to offer as a student. Although I enjoy English Literature and Chemistry: two of my 'A level´ subjects, I am especially keen to study Biology and Psychology. For me, the main appeal of the course lies in the variety of topics that will be covered. The aspects of Biology I find particularly interesting are neuroscience and how the immune system functions and responds. In Psychology, I am very interested in what makes people unique and how different factors shape our personality....   [tags: College Admissions Essays] 475 words
(1.4 pages)
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Monogamy and Marriage: The Battle Between Biology and the Buck - Monogamy and Marriage: The Battle Between Biology and the Buck Monogamy does not imply fidelity (Fisher 63), and marriage does not imply monogamy. To understand this surprising statement, the word "monogamy" must be interpreted in a biological sense, and marriage in a legal sense. In other words, monogamy is just two people in a relationship for their mutual benefit, perhaps involving an extended family and children. Monogamy does not necessarily mean a life-long relationship, but it can, nor does it exclude occasional philandering....   [tags: Essays Papers]
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4694 words
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biology - how light intensity affects the rate of photosynthesis - Biology Coursework ¡V Does The Light Intensity Affect the Rate of Photosynthesis The Investigation In this experiment I will investigate the affect in which the light intensity will have on a plants photosynthesis process. This will be done by measuring the bubbles of oxygen and having a bulb for the light intensity variable. Variables The input variable which will be used in this investigation will be the light intensity (this will be a 100Watt bulb being moved closer and further away from the plant)....   [tags: essays research papers] 2109 words
(6 pages)
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A Model for the Evolutionary Dynamics of Cross-Feeding Polymorphisms in Microorganisms - Abstract Understanding mechanisms of evolutionary diversification is central to evolutionary biology. Microbes constitute promising model systems for observing processes of diversification directly in the laboratory. One of the main existing paradigms for microbial diversification is the evolution of cross-feeding polymorphisms, in which a strain specializing on a primary resource coexists with a cross-feeding strain that specializes on a waste product resulting from consumption of the primary resource....   [tags: Biology ] 2740 words
(7.8 pages)
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Verifying a Potential Role of GH in the Maintenance and Regeneration of Skeletal Muscle Precursors - Introduction Rapid developments in free radical biology and molecular technology led to the acquisition of data supporting the role of oxidative stress as a major contributor to the aging process and to the pathogenesis of a number of diseases (57, 65, 70). Oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids accumulates with age and contributes to degenerative diseases and the aging phenomenon by disrupting cellular homeostasis (1, 3, 4, 27). At the cellular level, oxidative stress generated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ROS-modified molecules can influence a wide range of cellular functions, leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation or accelerated cell death (20)....   [tags: Biology] 613 words
(1.8 pages)
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How the Immune System Works - Most of the time nonspecific defenses keep pathogens from getting into the body. Sometimes one can break through and cause a disease. This is where the immune system comes into use. The immune system is the body's third line of defense. It is a network of several tissues and white blood cells. The tissues of the immune system are bone marrow, thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, and adenoids. The white blood cells of the immune system are called lymphocytes (Postlethwait Hopson, Modern Biology)....   [tags: Biology]
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1942 words
(5.5 pages)
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Breeding Habits of Water Birds - Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION Many species aggregate for feeding, roosting and nesting activities, which are prevalent among water birds (Weins, 1992). Why animals form breeding colonies is a major unresolved question in evolutionary biology. The topic continues to stir lively debate (Danchin & Wagner 1997, Tella et al., 1998) and has been the focus of long term studies (Hoogland 1995; Brown & Brown 1996; Danchin et al. 1998). One of the principal issues has been whether colonies form due to limited breeding habitat; with animals forced into nesting aggregations at a nest cost, or result from social benefits of clustering (Food finding, reduced predation; Lack 1968; Alexander 1974; Hoogland & Sh...   [tags: Biology ] 976 words
(2.8 pages)
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Effects of Ultra Violet Radiation - Introduction During our studies in Biology lab, we have learned about Ultra Violet Radiation; the uses and harms that this radiation emits controlled and uncontrolled. One study was in the Noble paper that studied the effects of Ultra Violet radiation on seed growth and germination with the thought in minds how the increase of global Ultra Violet radiation may affect plants growth and germination. This scientific experiment is similar to the Noble paper study but differentiates in that this experiment will document the effects of gamma radiation on radish seeds in germination and on overall growth of the seeds....   [tags: Biology] 775 words
(2.2 pages)
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Becoming a Researcher in the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular & Cellular Biology in the Georgetown University School of Medicine - STATEMENT OF PURPOSE “They can conquer those who believe they can” – these lines by Ralph Waldo Emerson have kept my dream alive of charting a career of research and innovation for myself. Advances are being made in the field of Biotechnology and it has emerged as a captivating and versatile field of science. Application of newer technologies has created new challenges and opportunities in this industry, but it is largely untapped resource and has large potential for continuous research. These newer challenges excite me and I am keen to try my hand at unraveling them with my skills through MS in Biotechnology and pursue a life of scholarly pursuits along with imparting the knowledge gained...   [tags: statement of purpose] 607 words
(1.7 pages)
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Dr. Indrani Bose's Seminar, “Using RNA Interference to Understand the Virulence and Biology of the Yeast Cryptococcus Neoformans - ... There are a few antifungal medicines in use today, these are Amphotericin B, Flucytosine, and Fluconazole. But there are various negative effects of using these drugs. “The long-term use of drugs that target ergosterol, such as fluconazole or amphotericin B, can result in renal and liver toxicity” (2). Another issue is that Cryptococcus neoformans eventually develops resistance to these medications. Dr. Bose stated that her long term goal is to discover better drugs to eradicate this disease from developing in humans....   [tags: meningoencephalitis, fungus, genes] 771 words
(2.2 pages)
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DNA: Exploring Creation With Biology - DNA is the basic substance in the life forms you see around you, yet it is a complicated concept. Your DNA determines the color of your eyes, skin, hair and enable functions such as your sight and hearing. DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid which contains the biological aspects that make everyone individually different. DNA is all contained in one molecule, and there are millions of tightly packaged DNA cells all throughout many life forms making it the building block of the DNA. In the late 1860’s, a Swiss chemist named Friedrich Miescher first identified DNA....   [tags: Deoxyribonucleic Acid, Scientists, Studies]
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1053 words
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Biology: The structure of Luciferase - Proteins play a fundamental role in the existence of living organisms. They are major contributors of cell structure and mobility, hormonal interaction, information exchange, and, most importantly, regulation of essential reactions. Enzymes are proteins that activate or inhibit the conversion of a substrate to a product. Often, enzymes catalyze reactions that are crucial for biological processes, but a few regulate other aspects of life, such as communication between a species. The enzyme luciferase catalyzes the reaction that allows fireflies to communicate with each other via emission of a yellow-green to yellow-orange colored light (Nakatsu, T....   [tags: living organisms, fireflies, light]
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1595 words
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The Biology of Breast Cancer - ... Over the past twenty years, researchers discovered more about Breast Cancer and cancer in general, then the past five-hundred years together. Within the past twenty years Breast Cancer research has expanded to six continents rather than one. The Breast Cancer Research Foundation (BCRF), is a distinguished group of nine men and women who are devoted to understanding breast cancer. The approach of BCRF allows them to move their ideas to patients quickly. “We empower researchers to utilize their grants to explore new theories, conduct pilot investigations and partner with fellow researchers from around the world to deepen their work and thereby improve their results” (BCRF), which shows how...   [tags: symptoms, prevention, treatment]
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Biology Answers to Quiz: Cells - 1. I believe that these polymers, Cellulose, starch and glycogen have different properties because they are used in different organisms. Cellulose and starch are mainly used in plants and glycogen is used in animals. Cellulose is used for strength in its stems and leaves and uses starch for help with storing things. Glycogen is used in animals to help store things as well. These polymers have different properties because they have different functions in different organisms. 2. Diffusion is the spreading out of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration....   [tags: Cellulose, Difussion, ATP] 532 words
(1.5 pages)
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Gene Expression Noise - One of the most striking aspects of biology is in the diversity of cellular life. Although much of this variability has been attributed to genetic and environmental factors, recent studies have shown4 that genetically identical organisms in the same environment exhibit heterogeneity in gene expression. This phenomenon, gene expression noise, has been observed and measured across species as divergent as prokaryotes and mammalian cells.1-4 We have been keenly interested in understanding more about the origin of this heterogeneity as well as wondering what potential functional consequences it may have....   [tags: Biology] 748 words
(2.1 pages)
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Kingdom vs. Domain - Part A On Earth there are estimated to be around 30 million different organisms. With this sheer volume of different life and the natural human instinct to know as much as possible, it is necessary for us to break up the huge amount of information into more convenient groups. Scientists take two different approaches to this the first is the classical taxonomy, also known as the five kingdom system and the second is new taxonomy or the three domain system. The five kingdom system has developed with time....   [tags: Biology ]
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855 words
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Bioprocess Engineering Science - Introduction: Bioprocess engineering science is a big field of science, where four of different major subjects such as chemical engineering, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Biomedical Science, and Engineering Material; work together in harmony to solve many difficult problems which is possible to face the scientist in Biomedical Science, energy product, nutrition and designing devices such as bioreactors [1], With modified and added. Bioreactor is one of the most familiar words in bioprocessing engineering's books....   [tags: Biology] 1582 words
(4.5 pages)
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Biology of Serial Killers - Pakhomou (2004) defines a serial killer as a person who commits numerous homicides of different kinds in a repetitive manner and nature. On the other hand, Knight (2007) defines serial murder as the killing within a period of 30 days of three or more people. Such killings are committed by sadists and pervasive persons and they reflect displaced aggression, fantasies and destruction. This indicates clearly that, a serial killer doe’s not just carryout the act by being in a normal situation, but they act due to many eminent factors that lead them to carrying out the malicious act....   [tags: Criminology ]
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2199 words
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Biology: Epigenetics and Nuerogensis - Epigenetics and Neurogenesis “Epigenetics” is defined as to study the mechanisms which include DNA and histone modifications that lead to change in the expression of genes or cellular phenotype without aleration in the primary sequence of the DNA. These modifications are having a heritable pattern of gene expression in nature. Commonly studied epigenetic marks referred as DNA methylation and histone modifications include acetylation, ubiquitination, sumolyation, phosphorylation and others....   [tags: DNA, mammals] 1356 words
(3.9 pages)
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Biology: The Chiral Molecules - ... Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are one of the types of carbon, which is in cylindrical nanostructures form. Nanotubes are one of the members of the fullerene structural family. Their name is obtained from the long hollow structure with the walls formed by one atom thick sheets of carbon, called graphene. The sheets are then rolled at specific and discrete angles, and the combination of the rolling angle and radius decides the nanotube properties. There are several structures of CNT, which is differing in length, thickness, types of helicity and number of layers....   [tags: biomolecules, carbon, nanotubes] 1025 words
(2.9 pages)
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Biology: The Endosymbiotic Theory - ... A cell’s plasma membrane to come together and joins to combine the material inside and then an intracellular vesicle is then formed. The origin of Eukaryotes is still Under Investigation but the most popular theories involves a symbiotic relationship between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In 1883 this theory began with Andreas schimper. Schimper hypothesized that cells had an endosymbiotic nature. Konstantin Merezhkovsky proposed in 1905, the reason that the plastids were endosymbionts, suggesting that symbiosis is the force behind evolution....   [tags: lynn margulis, eukaryotes] 575 words
(1.6 pages)
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Echolocation in Marine Biology - ... Without proper communication, a dolphins feeding would be unsynchronised mayhem. dolphin communication makes feeding efficient as well as extremely easy for individuals to properly survive in their environment. Dolphins, and whales for example produce this sound by squeezing air through passages of the nasal cavity and out of an organ beneath their blowhole called the ‘melon. ’ When marine mammals send sound out these sounds, they rely on the speed of sound and an objects mass for the waves to bounce off of and return to the original individual from which the sound was transmitted....   [tags: marine mammals, dolphins, organisms] 957 words
(2.7 pages)
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Biology: Biological Fuel Cell - INTRODUCTION A microbial fuel cell (MFC) known as biological fuel cell is a bio-electrochemical system that pushes or produces a current by using bacteria (Bruce et al, 2012). Electricity is produced when the dissolved organic matter oxidized. Factors that effect the electricity production include Proton exchange of the system that also result in the change in the internal resistance of the system. The power retained from these systems is currently limited, by high internal resistance. However, they are studies conducted based on that and hopefully soon improvements in the system architecture will result in power generation that is dependent on the Competencies of the microorganisms (Min et...   [tags: microbial fuel cell, electricity, bacteria] 1723 words
(4.9 pages)
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Biology: What is Speciation? - ... In this example of the giraffes, Darwin suggests that variation was a result of preexisting genetic differences among the giraffes. While this other biologist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, believed that evolution occurred by the inheritance of acquired characteristics. He believed that the giraffe ancestor lengthened its neck by stretching to reach tree leaves, and then passed the change to the offspring. However, Darwin believed that some giraffes were just born with longer necks due to genetic differences....   [tags: charles darwin, natural selection] 859 words
(2.5 pages)
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Criminal Biology - In order to answer the above question, it must be understood what is meant by the term ‘the race-crime debate’. Bowling and Philips (2002) found the ‘race and crime’ debate has largely been detached from discussion of ethnic differences in the extent and nature of victimisation and how patterns of offending and victimisation interrelate. Bowling and Philips (2002) found that until recently the ‘race and crime’ debate had been preoccupied with other issues. The first being a question to whether people from ethnic minority groups are ‘more likely to commit criminal offences’, contrary to those from the majority of the white population....   [tags: Criminology ]
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2310 words
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Biology: Flatwroms - Platyhelminthes are mainly known as flatworms. These flatworms are bilaterally symmetrical and are triploblastic. Platyhelminthes are also acoelomates and participate in gaseous exchange through diffusion in the tegument layer. Platyhelminthes are subcategorized into two classes; Trematoda and Cestoidea. Clonorchis sinensis, a trematode parasite and Echinococcus granulosus, a cestoidean parasite are similar in the fact that they both are Platyhelminthes but these parasites differ in terms of their lifecycles and abilities to cause infection in humans....   [tags: life cycle, parasites] 582 words
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Biology Exam Q&A - Exam Two Question One Question Two The Red-Backed Jumping Spider (Phidippius Johnsoni) is found in Western North America and has been introduced to New Zealand with contaminated imported table grapes. They undergo gradual metamorphosis. They spin tubular nests out of silky thread under fallen logs, rocks and other debris on the ground. They hunt using sight so they are diurnal and mostly stay inside their nests at night. Their nests also provide havens in which molting, egg laying and hatching can take place, and offer protection against the elements....   [tags: Q&A]
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Biology Research Paper - Information: 1. Are organic products more nutritional than non-organic products. 2. Aim: To show that organic products are more nutritional than non-organic products. Hypothesis: Organic products have more nutritional value than non-organic products. 3. Introduction: Yogurt is a delicious dairy product that is filled with vitamins, calcium, protein and probiotics. Many teenagers enjoy eating yoghurt as it a simple on the go product, which can be a healthy alternative as a snack. It can boost your immunity as the calcium along with the good bacteria can reduce the risk of colon cancer and keep your colon healthy – it can also aid with digestion and absorption of nutrients due to the presen...   [tags: organic products, nutritional, non organic]
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Biology Research Report - The circadian rhythm keeps an organism’s body in sync with night and day in order to keep the body systems in order. The word circadian comes from the latin word circa diem, which means about a day (JCI). It was first identified in 1729 by Jean Jacques d’Ortuous de Marian, a french astronomer, geophysicist, and more importantly, a chronobiologist. Chronobiology is a type of science that examines the natural phenomenons and rhythms such as the circadian rhythm (Serendip). He was born on November 26, 1678 and died on February 20, 1771....   [tags: Circadian Rhythm, Body Systems, Organism]
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1302 words
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Biology- Cell Division - A cell is the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism. A cell is typically microscopic and consists of cytoplasm, a nucleus and enclosed in a membrane. For the information, a cell also has reproduction same like human, animal and plant. Due to Rudolf Virchow (1855), a German physician said that “Where a cell exists, there must have been a pre-existing cell, just as the animal arises only from an animal and the plant only from a plant”. He can be concluded that this concept with the Latin axiom “Omnis cellula e cellula,” that means “Every cell from a cell”....   [tags: Organism, Microscopic, Cytoplasm, Membrane]
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1393 words
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Biology: Endocrine Hormones - Endocrine Hormones Are Involved In the Homeostasis of Blood Pressure Human body is probably as scientific as it could get with a whole network of controls and balances well in place. We have the nervous systems and immune systems and these systems are there to stay and more importantly they evolve and change with the passage of time. They keep upgrading themselves and this what keeps the man up to par with everything else and the change as and when they do come about. The hormone is like a messenger or a communicator in the case of out body....   [tags: immune system, messages, blood] 600 words
(1.7 pages)
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Biology Oral Cancer - All cancer has a genetic basis. It is triggered by mutations in the genes of a cell which then cause the cell to abnormally reproduce. Many of these gene changes are caused by random mutations when the cell is dividing. It only takes one cell mutating to cause cancer. There are no symptoms for the beginning of cancer and only five to ten percent of all cancers are caused by parents passing down genetic mutations to their children. The remaining are caused by environmental changes (Douglas). Cancer directly affects the lives of approximately 13.7 million Americans....   [tags: genetic mutations, gene changes] 715 words
(2 pages)
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Biology: Uncoupling Proteins - Since its’ discovery in the late 1970s, uncoupling proteins have roused excitement among cellular biologists due to its’ central role in energy dissipation. Subsequently, the uncoupling effect as well as the physiological role of the first uncoupling protein, UCP1, is well established when researchers at the time, were devoting their focus on the thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue or BAT. They were looking specifically at mitochondria in this tissue to define fat storage mechanisms in response to dietary restriction and temperature [1]....   [tags: energy dissipation, scientists] 2436 words
(7 pages)
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Biology: The Thermodynamics of Protein-Protein Interactions - There are various methods that have been developed over these years to study protein-protein interactions (PPIs). PPI plays a big role in the cell-signalling cascade; for instance, dephosphorylation of glycogen synthase by protein phosphatase-1 results in glycogen synthesis. To know whether a specific protein binds to its partner, for example, whether TFIIH interacts with TFIIE or TFIIF to complete the pre-initiation complex in transcription, different methods such as co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pull down assays, yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H) assays, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectros...   [tags: cell, cytoplam, chemistry, antibody]
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1308 words
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Zoology Biology Quiz: Arthropods and Worms - Annelids: I learned that the phylum Annelids can consist of many creatures such as earthworms, leeches, and scale worms can adapt to a variety of environments. Annelids’ bodies are divided into segments which are seen as rings by the naked eye. They have muscles which help them move by contracting their longitudinal and circular muscles. When Annelids take in food, the food particles travel through one end of the body and are excreted out the other side. The video enhanced my understanding about Annelids because without seeing different species and what classified them as Annelids I would have never known an earthworm or a leech fell into that phylum....   [tags: Annelids, Chordates, Insects] 1274 words
(3.6 pages)
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Biology: Main Types of Wnt Pathways - Introduction Wnt signalling pathways are highly significant protein substances within the body. They are responsible for passing signals across cell membrane receptors from without the cell to within the cell. This communication can occur either among neighbouring cells or within the same cell. The pathways play a regulatory role in that it regulates gene transcription, cytoskeleton, and calcium within the cell. Wnt signalling pathways are unique in that they are similar in several species. The pathways are also associated with embryonic development and carcinogenesis....   [tags: canonical, non-canonical pathways] 1312 words
(3.7 pages)
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Biology: Arabidopsis Culture Cell and Transformation - Arabidopsis Culture Cell and Transformation Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Columbia ecotype suspension- cultured T87 cells were maintained at 22°C in JPL3 medium with continuous illumination and shaking at 100g. Two-week-old cells were sieved through 500 μm stainless mesh and the remaining filtrate was transferred to a flask containing 20 ml of fresh JPL3 medium for subculture. Transformation of T87 cells was done by culturing the cells in B5 medium supplemented with 1 μM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 40 g L-1 sucrose....   [tags: gene expression analysis] 564 words
(1.6 pages)
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Biology: What´s Ubiquitin and Ubiquitination? - Ubiquitin and Ubiquitination INTRODUCTION General Understanding of Ubiquitin. Ubiquitin is a regulatory protein that plays an important role in the regulation of eukaryotic cells. The word ubiquitin is derived from the Latin word, ubiquitous, which means everywhere, since this protein is found in all parts of the body. It was first isolated by Goldstein in 1975 from the thymus and was later found in all of the tissues and organs of the eukaryotic cells1. The protein has a molar mass of 8.5 kDa and consists of 76 amino acids that are highly conserved in all eukaryotic organisms1....   [tags: protein, N and C terminal ] 2115 words
(6 pages)
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Biology: What´s a Chromosomal Mutation? - A mutation is a change in DNA. An organism's DNA affects how it looks and how it behaves. It can be any change in the gene sequence. We as christians do realize that genes do change over time. The way that our DNA can be changed is by multiple reasons, U.V. hitting it , radiation hitting or even replication mistakes. There are different kinds of mutations and We will talk about them later on in the paper. Before researching the topic of mutations my initial thought right off the back is, some kind of gross abnormally growing on or in creatures of this world (notes, american)....   [tags: dna, gene sequence] 590 words
(1.7 pages)
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Why Shark Bay (Australia) is a World Heritage Site - Why Shark Bay (Australia) is a World Heritage Site Shark bay is recognised as one of the worlds heritage sites as it fits into all four of the major categories they are: * “ as an outstanding example representing the major stages in the earth’s evolutionary history; * as an outstanding example representing significant ongoing ecological and biological processes; * as an example of superlative natural phenomena; and * Containing important and significant habitats for in situ conservation of biological diversity.” (June 4th Shark Bay World Heritage area: http://www.geology.ucdavis.edu) The shark bay region has a number of plant species that are threatened and the last of their ki...   [tags: Biology] 412 words
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Biology of Cloning - Cloning: the process of copying one’s DNA to create an identical organism through nonsexual means. To Clone a human there are 5 Steps. 1. First you need to get an adult human female and Isolate the nucleus from a somatic (non-reproductive) cell. The complete genetic material of the organism is in the nucleus. To get the cell nuclei this step is repeated many times. A very small needle and syringe (suction device) is used to poke through the cell membrane to capture the nucleus and remove it from the cell....   [tags: essays research papers] 395 words
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External Structure of Roots and Stems - The lab exercise about External Structure of roots and stems enabled us to see and hold the parts of the roots and stems of plants, thus examine them more closely. We were able to compare the different root systems and the kinds of stems of different plants, thus we were able to find similarities and differences. We examined different root systems and labeled the parts, thus we were able to differentiate both kinds of systems from one another. We were also given the chance to examine closely a monocot and a dicot plant....   [tags: Biology] 992 words
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The Effect of Cholesterol on Membrane Fluidity - The cell plasma membrane, a bilayer structure composed mainly of phospholipids, is characterized by its fluidity. Membrane fluidity, as well as being affected by lipid and protein composition and temperature (Purdy et al. 2005), is regulated by its cholesterol concentration (Harby 2001, McLaurin 2002). Cholesterol is a special type of lipid, known as a steroid, formed by a polar OH headgroup and a single hydrocarbon tail (Wikipedia 2005, Diwan 2005). Like its fellow membrane lipids, cholesterol arranges itself in the same direction; its polar head is lined up with the polar headgroups of the phospholipid molecules (Spurger 2002)....   [tags: Biology] 981 words
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Stem Cells: Characterization and Biomedical Importance - Over the past decade, stem cell biology has been an area that has caused much controversy. Stem cells have the ability to differentiate into many different types of cells and therefore, advocates of stem cell research argue that the cells have various medical applications. On the other hand, opponents of stem cell research denounce the use of human embryos for research purposes, claiming that the embryos represent human lives and that experimentation with them and subsequent annihilation of them is the same as killing a living human being....   [tags: Biology] 870 words
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Mirror Neurons and Motor Memory Formation - WHAT ARE MIRROR NEURONS. Mirror neurons have been hailed by scientists as the most significant finding in neurology in the past decade, the key to understanding the secrets of human interaction and learning, and as significant to psychology as DNA is to biology. Mirror neurons are a newly-discovered structure of the brain responsible for the firing of neurons during both physical movement and the observation of physical movement. It is these firings during observation of movements that has scientists excited about their relation to learning and interaction....   [tags: Biology] 1732 words
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Sperm Selection After Mating - A Bit of Background Information What is pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection. From the word copulatory, meaning to engage in sexual intercourse, pre-copulatory sexual selection refers to the female's choice in selecting a mate before sexual intercourse takes place. Post-copulatory sexual selection occurs within the female's reproductive track, and it describes the biological selection (whether due to sperm or the female's biology) that results in the fertilization her eggs. Why are guppies good subjects for research in this topic....   [tags: Biology] 991 words
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Johny's Brain on Coke - The following is a hypothetical and extremely unrealistic dialogue between my hypothetical friend Johnny and me. The conversation takes place at a Wesleyan party and concerns Johnny's decision to snort cocaine. The reason I chose cocaine for the topic of this dialogue is because of its widespread prevalence on campus, as well as the fact that several friends of mine frequently do coke for recreational purposes. Me. Hey Johnny, what you up to. Johnny. Nothing much dude, just doin' some lines. You in....   [tags: Biology] 779 words
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DNA and common elements - Biology Topic Three Chemical elements element Function Prokaryotes Plants animals Sulphur proteins proteins Proteins Calcium Flagella movement Forms cell plate during cytokinesis Shells, bones, vesicle fusion Phosphorus Nucleic acids and ATP Nucleic acids and ATP Nucleic acids and ATP iron Cytochrome- used in respiration Cytochromes-used in reparation Cytochromes – used in mitochondria respiration, haemoglobin Sodium Main cation in cytoplasm Transmission of nerve impulses Water - Polar molecule - Oxygen has slight negative charge - Hydrogen has slight positive charge - Opposite charges attract - This forms hydrogen bonds - This is called coh...   [tags: Biology] 806 words
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Arabidopsis Thaliana - Project Proposal: AIMS - Bioinformatic approach to aid gene identification and characterisation in Arabidopsis thaliana - Evaluate and integrate the accuracy of Arabidopsis database INTRODUCTION: Arabidopsis thaliana is a model plant for research and has been used wisely to study many aspects of plant biology. There is significant amount of information about this plant in the database, such as fully sequenced and annotated genomic sequence, extensive expressional data and functional characterisation data....   [tags: Biology]
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A GCSE Biology Case Study on Whether Cannabis Should be reclassified to a Class B Drug - A Biology Case Study on Whether Cannabis Should be reclassified to a Class B Drug Introduction: In this case study on cannabis, I am going to be exploring whether Cannabis, which is currently a Class C drug, should be reclassified to become a Class B drug. It is commonly thought that if Cannabis was reclassified, it would dissuade drug dealers and users from taking and selling the drug, as if caught with it a longer sentence and heavier fine would be enforced. I will also be discussing how easy it would be for the government to enforce laws about cannabis and how much, the public would be deterred....   [tags: Marijuana Drugs Narcotics]
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The Biology of a Serial Killer - The year is 1967 and Theodore Bundy, an average American college student has fallen in love with Stephanie, a dark haired co-ed of the same state university. He convinces her to go on a few dates, but she quickly loses interest, later citing his lack of ambition. The rejection on his heels, Bundy shifts gears and spends the next six years of his life transforming himself into the law student of her dreams. When they meet again Bundy holds the upper hand and Stephanie falls in love. A short time after the small wedding ceremony Bundy abandons Stephanie during a ski vacation and she never hears from him again.(2) In the context of this short historical blip from the life of America's mo...   [tags: Chaos Theory and the Serial Killer]
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The Importance of Water in Biology - Task: Design, then execute, a lab protocol to investigate water properties Research question: Is water co-hesive/ ad-hesive. Hypothesis: If we test water's co-hesion and ad-hesion on various papers, it will vary. For example, if we place water on wax paper, it will not be absorbed and thus helps to prove that it is not very ad-hesive as it will stay in a ball and will easily roll off. Also, the water will be easily broken if we were to try separating it using a metal stick, and this will show weak co-hesive forces....   [tags: Lab Report] 539 words
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Biology, The Five Major Compounds - Compounds That Compose the Human Body There are five major groups of compounds that compose the human body. They are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleotides, and water. These are all very important to humans and without them we would not be able to survive. They have many functions that encourage a human cell and a human body to function. Carbohydrates include sugars and starches, contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen which appears in a ratio of 1:2:1. Carbohydrates are classified according to size as monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides....   [tags: essays research papers] 1150 words
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Cell Biology: The DNA of Both Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes - Driving successfully on the wrong side of the highway requires a bulldozer: Surviving RNAP-Replisome Collisions INTRODUCTION The DNA of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes is populated with thousands of bound proteins in vivo. Among these proteins are the replisome and RNA Polymerase (RNAP). The replisome is a large molecular machine that replicates DNA in living cells. It consists of many individual proteins which vary based on the organism, but in general must consist of DNA polymerase, a helicase, primase, ligase, RNase H, some variation on a single stranded binding protein (SSB), and a gyrase/topoisomerase....   [tags: equity theory, e coli, helicase]
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Biology: Hydrolysis of Lipids Using an Enzyme Called ‘Lipase’ - Hydrolysis of Lipids Using an Enzyme Called ‘Lipase’ Research and Rationale Enzymes Enzymes are made up of proteins that are available in every cell of a living plant and animal [9] .Enzymes are very important for biochemical reactions. They act as catalysts and speed up biochemical reactions by using ‘an alternative reaction pathway of lower activation energy’ [5].Enzymes either starts a chemical reaction or allows it to occur faster [9]. Enzymes do not experience enduring changes therefore; remain unchanged at the end of the reaction [9]....   [tags: triglycerides, energy, molecule] 2578 words
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Choas Theory In Biology - Chaos In Biological Systems In today’s world of high-tech methods to study just about anything that exists, we are still imperfect. Scientists continue to look for ways to understand, explain, and even predict the actions and reactions of the universe. In the last two centuries, scientists have been looking in every possible place to understand the universe; from science, to math, even religion. They have turned to mathematicians and their strange theories of determinism and predictability. This search to understand the universe has spawned several new areas of science; there are now scientists devoted solely to the research of mere theories, such as chaos theorists....   [tags: essays research papers] 2032 words
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Lab: Which PH Breaks Down Albumin, a Substrase of the Enzyme Pepsin - Task 1 Extended Experimental investigation Factors Affecting Enzyme Action Focus Question: This lab will be driven by the research question, which pH level has the most successful effect on the activity of the enzyme Pepsin (protease) in the breakdown of the substrate, albumin. Introduction: Pearson Baccalaureate: Standard Level Biology Developed Specifically for the IB Diploma describes enzymes as “protein molecules which act as catalysts for reactions. As catalysts, the real function of enzymes is to lower the activation energy of the reactions that they catalyze” (Ward, Tosto, McGonegal, & Damon, 2007)....   [tags: Biology, Protein] 739 words
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The Rapid Development of Functional Genomics - Functional genomics is an area of study within molecular biology which attempts to analyse genetic products, in order to understand the function and interaction of genes, and the proteins produced by them. It is a genome-wide method used under different environmental conditions and the DNA function can be deciphered through a combination of genes, proteins and transcripts. The new approach provides geneticists with the possible answers of understanding how genes interact with one another and analysing DNA sequences of organisms which are unique to biological systems....   [tags: molecular biology] 1972 words
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Revealing Metabolic Phenotypes in Plant - Introduction Metabolomics is the ‘omics’ science of metabolism and its definition is in analogy with other part of biological science genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. The metabolome or study of metabolites covers all the compounds formed in a biological system, from an organelle to a whole organism. Also, metabolome can be explained as the entire set of small molecules (non-polymeric compounds with a molecular weight less than ~1000Da) that are found in general metabolic reactions as byproduct and that are biosynthesized by a vital system like cell, tissue or organism....   [tags: Biology Science]
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Biology Cell Parts - Nucleus- “the brain” or control center of the cell. The Nucleus, a membrane-bound structure of a cell, plays two crucial roles in controlling the cell. The nucleus carries the cell's genetic information that determines if the organism will develop, for instance, into a tree or a human; and it directs most cell activities including growth, metabolism, and reproduction by controlling protein synthesis. The presence of a nucleus distinguishes the more complex eukaryotic cells of plants and animals from the simpler prokaryotic cells of bacteria and cyanobacteria that lack a nucleus....   [tags: essays research papers] 2776 words
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Biology Coursework: The effect of Trypsin on Gelatine. - Implementing: - 1. First, I gathered the necessary equipment: § Thermostatically controlled water baths § Ice § Thermometer § Stop watch § Test tubes § Photographic film (b/w) § Syringe § Test tube rack § Ruler § Scissors § O.1% trypsin made in pH7 buffer solution § Mounted needle 2. I then decided on the range of results and temperatures I was to investigate. I decided to observe 20º, 30º, 40º, 50º, 60º, 70º and 80º. 3. Next, I label each test tube with the temperature to be investigated and then added 2.5cm3 of Trypsin solution....   [tags: essays research papers] 677 words
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Analysis of Biology of Aloe Vera Plant - Aloe Vera is a member of the Liliaceae family. Also known as Aloe barbadensis, Barbados aloe, and medicinal aloe. (Quattrocchi, 2000) There are nearly five hundred species of aloe, found throughout the world today. These low or stem-less plants that originated from Africa, have prickly margined, pointed leaves that produce a yellowish, “gel” or medicinal sap, when cut. Taonomic Affiliation: The species Aloe Vera is more scientifically known as Aloe barbadenis. It is a member of the Asphodelacea (Liliaceae) family, which has many other similar plants, but A....   [tags: Papers]
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The work of Darwin - Although the relation between Economics and Biology is not that apparent at a first glance, both sciences have found overlapping points along their own history. It was Thomas Malthus’s theory about population growth that in some way inspired Charles Darwin to come up with his famous and bedrock theory of evolution through natural selection. More recently, a discussion has been sparked about whether Darwinian ideas can help Economics understand better human behavior. This is because much of the economic theory is based on a stylized conception of man, homo economicus, who thinks and acts rationally, but this stylization ultimately leads to false predictions and poor explanations of historical...   [tags: Economics, Biology]
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Section 3.1-3.2 Biology 1 Notes - SECTION 3.1 WHERE LIFE HAPPENS 1. Living things can be either uni-cellular (one cell) or multi cellular. A bacteria is one type of unicellular. 2. About 8000 of the smallest bacteria could fit inside one of your red blood cells. 3. The longest cells are the thin nerve cells found in large animals and they can be more than a meter long. 4. The cell with the greatest volume is an unfertilized ostrich egg 5. A cell’s shape is related to its function. For example, a long nerve cell is long and it carries messages from your spine to your toes....   [tags: essays research papers] 1018 words
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Are viruses living entities? - Viruses change every form of life. All life forms can be divided into two states, one that stores and second that acts upon information, to duplicate an organism (Levine 1992). They populate the world between the living and non-living, the ability to duplicate themselves and ones that cannot. Viruses are inherent in organization and their properties are many of secrets of life processes and life (Levine 1992). Viruses may be present in living organisms almost since the origin of life (Levy, Owens 1988)....   [tags: Virus Biology]
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Sample Questions for a Biology Exam or Essay Topics: Viruses and Bacteria - • BIO-112-IT1-S-14 Topic 7 Module 2 Exam - topics for essay and sho... Viruses. 1. Why are viruses not living organisms. Pg325 Viruses are not considered living organisms because they have a single viral structural. This means viruses are not cells because they have no nucleus, organelle, or cytoplasm, and no genetic material. Having none of these characteristics viruses cannot be considered a living cell because they do not metabolize, respond to stimuli or reproduce on their own. They have to infect a living cell by entering a l host to reproduce more of its self....   [tags: Organisms, Structure] 799 words
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Synthetic Biology: Transplanting an Artificial DNA to a Living Bacterium Mycoplasma - ... This is followed by transplanting the artificial DNA into a living bacterium Mycoplasma capricolum with its own DNA. They then allowed the bacterium which now contains both artificial and synthetic DNA to multiply. This means that the daughter bacteria will contain both artificial and authentic DNA. To remove the authentic DNA bacteria, they used an antibiotic that kills the bacteria with authentic DNA but not the bacteria with artificial DNA. They then allowed the artificial bacteria to produce proteins....   [tags: prokaryotic and eukaryotic] 554 words
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