Preview
Preview

Affirmative Action Essay

:: 1 Works Cited
Length: 1138 words (3.3 double-spaced pages)
Rating: Purple      
Open Document
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Affirmative Action

Affirmative action is a deliberate effort to provide full and equal opportunities in employment, education, and other areas for women, minorities, and individuals belonging to other traditionally disadvantaged groups. As an issue of today's society,
affirmative action requires corporations, universities and other organizations to establish programs designed to ensure that all applicants are treated fairly. It also places a burden of proof on the providers of opportunities; to some degree, the providers must be able to demonstrate that their granting of opportunities to white males is not discriminatory.

The policy mentioned above was first brought before the Supreme Court in 1978 in the case of University of California v. Bakke. Alan Bakke, a white man, had been denied twice to admission to a University of California medical school. It was even shown that his admission test scores were higher than several minority group students who had been accepted. Bakke sued on the basis of discrimination against white males and claimed that the school had a quota. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of Bakke, but stated that the it was not a violation of affirmative action per se. The Court said that only rigid racial quotas were an impermissible form of affirmative action in determining medical school admissions.

The Bakke case was followed by two rulings in favor of affirmative action programs, one of which, Fullilove v. Klutnick, upheld a quota system that required ten percent of federal public works funds to be set aside for minority-owned firms. The view of the Supreme Court was narrowed in the 1980s when new, more conservative justices were appointed. The Court held that preferred tre...


... middle of paper ...


...ica=s ideals on its side, and no resort to logic can persuade either side that the opposing viewpoint should prevail.

Affirmative action relates directly to the individual verses society humanity-based theme. For example, the women and minority groups fighting for individual freedoms in the general society. Many individuals have worked and still work for their specific rights and freedoms to be granted. It takes the initiative of individuals to make a difference in the society.

Works Cited

1. Hill, John. "Affirmative Action: Roots to Success."
http://www.afronet.com/WB/031597-2.html (2 April 1998)

2. Legislative Analyst. "Analysis of Proposition 209."
http://Vote96.ss.ca.gov./Vote96/html/BP/209analysis.htm (2 April 1998)

3. "Proposition 209: Text of Proposed Law."
http://Vote96.ss.ca.gov/Vote96/html/BP/209text.htm


Click the button above to view the complete essay, speech, term paper, or research paper








This essay is 100% guaranteed.


Title Length Color Rating  
Essay about Affirmative Action - Affirmative action caught in tale of the two cities of Boston, Massachusetts and Denver, Colorado. Since the late 1980s, race and sex-based contracting preference programs in the U.S. cities have faced significant challenges in the courts (Rubin). On February 7th, Boston Mayor Thomas Menino announced his plan to eliminate a 15 year old program that required bidders on city construction contracts to subcontract 15% of work to minority-owned business enterprises and 5% to women-owned firms (Rubin)....   [tags: Affirmative Action] 870 words
(2.5 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Affirmative Action Essay - Affirmative action- a plan to offset past discrimination in employing or educating women, blacks etc. (Websters New World Dictionary.) The history of affirmative action has its roots in the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and stems from the United States Supreme case of Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka Kansas. In 1965, President Linden B. Johnson issued Executive Order #11246 at Howard University that required federal contractors to undertake affirmative action to increase the number of minorities that they employ....   [tags: Affirmative Action Essays]
:: 1 Works Cited
782 words
(2.2 pages)
Better Essays [preview]
Affirmative Action Essay - Though Affirmative Action is a current controversial issue, it is far from new; its decree has been long in the making. Perhaps it originates from amendments 13-15, the series of amendments that outlawed slavery, guaranteed equal protection under the law, and forbid racial discrimination when voting, respectively (Sykes 1). The Supreme Court’s decision in 1896, in the case of Plessy V. Ferguson, mandated separate but equal treatment for African Americans (Sykes 1). However, in 1954, the Supreme Court’s decision from Brown v....   [tags: Government Affirmative Action Essays]
:: 30 Works Cited
3550 words
(10.1 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Essay on Affirmative Action - Affirmative action, is it still needed in this day and age. Has it accomplished what it was supposed to. Many people say that if America concentrated on programs that provided assistance to the most needy then they would have the opportunities that affirmative action is trying to provide. By going into the ghettos of our cities and stimulating business, thereby, promoting economic growth, the disenfranchised will reap the benefits. Have they been reaping the benefits of affirmation action. As a nation devoted to equality, the United States must do away with unproductive race-dividing policies....   [tags: Affirmative Action Essays]
:: 3 Works Cited
2649 words
(7.6 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Essay on Affirmative Action - There are thousands of examples of situations where people of color, white women, and working class women and men of all races who were previously excluded from jobs or educational opportunities, or were denied opportunities once admitted, have gained access through affirmative action. When these policies received executive branch and judicial support, vast numbers of people of color, white women and men have gained access they would not otherwise have had. These gains have led to very real changes....   [tags: Affirmative Action Essays]
:: 6 Works Cited
1304 words
(3.7 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Essay about Affirmative Action - In 1997, three students were denied admission into the University of Michigan. Each of them, in turn, sued the school, charging them with discrimination. In one of the cases, a student was denied admission into Michigan’s law school. Chicago Sun-Times writers Dave Newbart and Kate Grossman reported that last Monday, June 23, 2003, in a 5-4 majority ruling, swing vote Justice Sandra Day O’Connor judged for the school maintaining their right to consider the race of their applicants. In a second decision, the court ruled that they supported the University’s use of race in their admissions policy, but use of a point system was unconstitutional under the fourteenth amendment (Equal Protection Cl...   [tags: Affirmative Action Essays]
:: 1 Works Cited
1066 words
(3 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Affirmative Action Essay - After you graduate from college, you will be putting in your application for a job that you went to college for. Even though you might be the most qualified for the job you still might not obtain the position. Affirmative Action sometimes causes this because companies have to hire a certain number of minorities relative to the size of the company. This means that if there are no minority citizens available, immigrants who aren’t even US citizens can take the position. This is why Affirmative Action should be readjusted, because it is helping immigrants instead of the people it was meant for, American citizens....   [tags: Affirmative Action Essays]
:: 1 Works Cited
1086 words
(3.1 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Affirmative Action Essay - The affirmative action program is important because it gives job opportunities for many people regardless of their race, color, religion, gender, and national origin. The work force should be well represented by the different ethnic backgrounds of our society. Some people look at affirmative action as reverse discrimination, but this program doesn’t guarantee employment based on race, ethnicity, or gender. The affirmative action program gives equal consideration to individuals from a different race, ethnicity, or gender, but not one of these factors may be the only factor used to determine an individual’s qualifications for any job....   [tags: Affirmative Action Essays]
:: 2 Works Cited
2454 words
(7 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Affirmative Action Essay - Should a man be hired for his skills or for the color of his skin. Is racial diversity in the business world more important then the most qualified workers. Affirmative action has become an important topic in today’s society to better diversify the different races in America. Affirmative action is a set of public policies that were designed for the elimination of discrimination toward race, color, sex, etc. These policies are under attack today because of the unfairness toward the more qualified people....   [tags: Affirmative Action Essays]
:: 2 Works Cited
704 words
(2 pages)
Good Essays [preview]
Affirmative Action Essay - What can be done about the majority of higher paying jobs going to the white males, and the issue of racial/sexual discrimination in both the workplace and in education. To this, the government already has its so-called solution… affirmative action. Affirmative action forces businesses and colleges to hire a certain number of minorities including women, so as to fill a government assessed quota. The solution is not to get even with the white males by disregarding either their hard work through high school to achieve the grade to get into their desired college or their superiority over a competitor for a job position just because the competitor happens to belong to a minority group....   [tags: Affirmative Action Essays]
:: 1 Works Cited
615 words
(1.8 pages)
Better Essays [preview]