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The Nightmare of The Yellow Wallpaper

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"The Yellow Wallpaper" was one of the first works to chronicle the process of going insane. Its harrowing quality derives from the fact that the author knows whereof she speaks. But even though it is based on Gilman's own breakdown, the story is crafted as a work of art, because the nightmarish motif of the yellow wallpaper itself serves as a metaphor for the disintegration of the protagonist's mind.

The narrator of "The Yellow Wallpaper" has no name. Generally, when the protagonist of a first-person story remains unnamed throughout the work, we take this to mean that the character represents all humankind. In this story, however, it seems more likely that the main character is unnamed because the experience she is undergoing robs her of her identity. Alone in the yellow-wallpapered nursery with the barred windows, she is treated like a combination inmate and child -- denied her writing that gives her solace and lends meaning to her life, denied stimulating companionship that could distract her from her preoccupation with her meager surroundings. Denied any kind of healthy stimulus at all, she is forced to provide her own.

We can see that at the beginning of the book, our protagonist is not too far gone. Her first impression is of the ugly wallpaper; she's "never seen a worse paper in [her] life." Almost immediately, however, she veers into a type of language that could either be interpreted as metaphorical or disturbed, describing the pattern's "lame uncertain curves" that "suddenly commit suicide -- plunge[ing] off at outrageous angles, destroy[ing] themselves in unheard-of contradictions." Obviously it is the protagonist herself who feels lame and uncertain, and fears suicide -- fears that she herself will suddenly plun...


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...dentical; in other words, the woman in the wallpaper is a projection of herself. At the end, in emulation of the wallpaper-woman, she has begun to crawl, too; she creeps around and around the circumference of the room, in a ritual re-enactment of the bizarre drama of her mind. At last she rips the wallpaper off the wall, freeing the wallpaper-woman and making them one in fact as well as in deed. And only then does she permit John to come upstairs and see what she has done.

What, in fact, has Charlotte Perkins Gilman done in this story? She has shown what happens when a woman is allowed no creative expression at all, no mental stimulus, and no access to the things that fulfill her. She keeps trying to go deeper, further inside, to reach a place where she can truly reach a sense of selfhood; but denied any avenue to accomplish this, her quest becomes a nightmare.


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