Overview of Molecular Biology Essay

:: 25 Works Cited
Length: 1224 words (3.5 double-spaced pages)
Rating: Purple      
Open Document
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

In 1970 Francis Crick published a paper in the science journal Nature on the central dogma of molecular biology, presenting the normal flow of genetic information, as shown in Figure 1 (Crick, 1970). Although many discoveries have been made since then, the main idea still stands: every organism uses its own DNA sequence to synthesize its proteins (Crick, 1970). In order to function properly, the genome has to be kept unblemished, any damage can potentially affect a protein’s structure, interfering with its function (Brown, 2010). Albeit evolution has equipped every functional cell with a molecular toolkit designed to repair and thus prevent DNA damage, errors still occur. Those errors that remain buried within a cell’s genome and are sometimes passed on to the next generation, go under the name of DNA mutation. Because DNA codes for proteins and RNA molecules, almost every change in the DNA sequence, left unrepaired, can cause physiological malfunctions, known as genetic diseases.
According to The Global Genes Project, there are more than 7,000 rare genetic diseases alone. Despite those alarming figures, genetic diseases are not uncommon since DNA is rather a fragile molecule prone to damage. Many types of mutations have been analyzed and classified, the simplest of which is point mutation. The change of one base pair into another has been linked to life-threatening diseases such as sickle cell anemia. In sickle cell anemia, the structure of the β-strand of the hemoglobin protein has been modified by the replacement of glutamine acid (Ingram, 1957).At the molecular level, the change from glutamic to valine corresponds to a modification of adenine to thymine (Marotta et al., 1977), leaving the peptide chain with a loss of negative...

... middle of paper ...

...e mitochondria and possible contribution to mutagenesis through reduced replication fidelity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102, 4990-4995
22. Taylor, R. W., & Turnbull, D. M. (2005) Mitochondrial DNA mutations in human disease. Nature Reviews Genetics 6, 389-402
23. Thibodeau P. H., et al., (2010). The cystic fibrosis-causing mutation deltaF508 affects multiple steps in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator biogenesis. J. Biol. Chem.285, 35825–35835
24. 2014. Gene Abnormalities and Disorders Help for Chromosomes - Transtutors. [online] Available at: [Accessed: 21 Mar 2014].
25. Viguera, E., et al. Replication slippage involves DNA polymerase pausing and dissociation. EMBO Journal 20, 2587–2595 (2001)

Click the button above to view the complete essay, speech, term paper, or research paper

This essay is 100% guaranteed.

Title Length Color Rating  
A General Overview of Biology Essay - ... Cytologists deal with the structure composition and functions of cells whereas embryologists investigate the formation and development of animals and plants before they become independent organisms. History The philosophy of biology began with the ancienct Greeks. Plato (428-348 BCE) was not exactly interested in biology, yet his famous student, Aristotle (384-322 BCE) had much to state about it. Aristotle’s most important contributions were his observations that biological organisms can be arranged based on their complexity....   [tags: natural sciences, study of living things] 617 words
(1.8 pages)
Research Papers [preview]
Essay about Overview of Diabetes - Description of the disease Diabetes is known to be a heterogeneous disorder which has characteristics of persistent hyperglycemia. There are two major types of diabetes that include type 1 diabetes previously referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes and type 2 diabetes previously referred to as non insulin-dependent diabetes. These types of diabetes are known to be caused by a combination of environmental and genetical risk factors. However, we have other diabetes rare forms that are seen to be inherited directly....   [tags: Biology, Medicine]
:: 13 Works Cited
1833 words
(5.2 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Essay about Overview of the Importance of DNA - Discoveries in DNA, cell biology, evolution, and biotechnology have been among the major achievements in biology over the past 200 years with accelerated discoveries and insight’s over the last 50 years. Consider the progress we have made in these areas of human knowledge. Present at least three of the discoveries you find to be the most important and describe their significance to society, heath, and the culture of modern life. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a self-replicating molecule or material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent in chromosomes....   [tags: biology, evolution, biotechnology]
:: 8 Works Cited
1575 words
(4.5 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
The Utility of Nucleic Acid Hybridisation and Nucleic Acid Probes In Molecular Biology - The unique property of nucleic acids to pair with each other through complementary base pairing is the lifeblood of genetic engineering. A single strand of DNA can pair up with another strand of DNA or RNA if its base pairs are complementary to those of the other strand, under the right conditions of temperature and pH. This phenomenon is called nucleic acid hybridisation. It is possible to exploit this mechanism for the detection of one nucleic acid strand from a mixture of many other strands....   [tags: Molecular Biology]
:: 2 Works Cited
790 words
(2.3 pages)
Better Essays [preview]
Overview of Genetic Testing Essay - 2014 The National Institutes of Health Genetics Home Reference defines genetic testing as “a type of medical test that identifies changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins”. Genetic testing is used to determine if there are variations, additions or deletions in the DNA of a genome. These differences in DNA sequencing is what contributes to an individual’s traits but also affects whether there are risks for carrying a disease trait or the possibility of developing a genetic disorder. Gene mutations can occur at various times during the life cycle....   [tags: Biology, Medicine]
:: 9 Works Cited
1889 words
(5.4 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Essay on What is Molecular Biology? - MOLECULAR BIOLOGY INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION Molecular biology is to characterize the structure, function and relationships between two types of macromolecules, DNA and proteins. This relatively limited definition will suffice to allow us to establish a date for the so-called "molecular revolution", or at least to establish a chronology of its most fundamental developments (Walker, 2009) .At the heart of this definition is the idea of the gene, this concept dates back to the decade of the 1860's....   [tags: macromolecules, DNA, proteins]
:: 8 Works Cited
1731 words
(4.9 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Meselsohn and Stahl's Experiment's Impact on the History of Molecular Biology - ... Heavy isotopes have an extra neutron which makes it heavier and it’s called 15N. In their experiment they grew E. coli (bacteria) on a medium containing heavy isotopes of nitrogen and another with normal nitrogen. Both samples were spun in an ultracentrifuge, in order to isolate the DNA depending on density at maximum speed, and different cycles. The lighter cells were less dense (14N) and stayed close to the top, while the heavy nitrogen sunk to the bottom. When they began with heavy nitrogen, the bacteria made copies of themselves, and then their DNA split in the middle making two DNA strands....   [tags: studying DNA formation] 718 words
(2.1 pages)
Research Papers [preview]
Molecular Biology is the Transcription from DNA to RNA Essay - ... In this experiment, if done correctly, there should be 314 base pairs of beta-actin (housekeeping gene) and 480 base pairs of MMP-9. Beta-actin is run as a control since it is always present and is constantly produced within cells. MMP-9 is a gene that is used to digest extracellular matrix proteins. It does not become active until it is excreted out of the nucleus. In order to produce MMP-9 through the treatment of PMA via signal transduction, a signal is triggered through receptors in the cell’s membrane to a secondary messenger, PKC-beta, which in turn induces a response in DNA for a cell to modify and produce an end product, MMP-9 (Lab Manual, 2014)....   [tags: polymerase chain reaction. cells, students] 1089 words
(3.1 pages)
Research Papers [preview]
Review of Research Paper on RNA in Mammalian Cells - Review of Research Paper: Duplexes of 21-nucleotide RNAs mediate RNA interference in cultured mammalian cells Overview The significance of this experiment is that it shows how siRNA suppresses the expression of genes in different mammalian cells. It was known previous to the experiment that dsRNA can trigger apoptosis in cells- this is an automatic defense mechanism that mammalian cells use to protect against the dsRNA possessed by viruses. The dsRNA can cause RNA interference when it is taken into the cell by a transgene or a virus....   [tags: Biology] 1169 words
(3.3 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Biology Essay - Biology is the science of living systems. It is inherently interdisciplinary, requiring knowledge of the physical sciences and mathematics, although specialities may be oriented toward a group of organisms or a level of organization. BOTANY is concerned with plant life, ZOOLOGY with animal life, algology with ALGAE, MYCOLOGY with fungi, MICROBIOLOGY with microorganisms such as protozoa and bacteria, CYTOLOGY with CELLS, and so on. All biological specialties, however, are concerned with life and its characteristics....   [tags: Biology]
:: 4 Works Cited
2806 words
(8 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]