Men and Women in Military and Global Business
Length: 700 words (2 double-spaced pages)
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In this paper, first I will discuss how the biological and cultural established the gender roles. Second, I will differentiate the opportunities of men and women in the military. Lastly, I will discuss how men and women do business in the Middle East, Latin Americans, Asians, Europeans, Africans, and North Americans.
Biologically speaking, testosterone found in males makes them more aggressive and “men have greater size and strength, a greater capacity for short-term energy” which makes them “rises in response to competition and threat” (Egendorf 18 & 29). Egendorf added that men and women have different brains- constructed differently, resulting in important differences in perceptions, emotional expression, priorities, and behavior (32). Culturally, girls and boys are raised differently. For boys, from a young age they are taught to be strong and not to cry; whereas; girls are taught to be nice and caring for others. In addition, other cultures take male offspring important than female offspring. Although “biological differences play a part in forming gender roles, those differences are amplified by cultural influences” (comp. Egendorf/Blum 25).
Throughout the history of military and war, men are always in the front line. Now, women in the military have tackled the military life too. In a research study by Martha J.M. Kelly, a Lieutenant Colonel in the U.S. Air Force, she focuses on how men and women in leadership positions differ in the military- a male dominated environment. Kelly states that
“Men more frequently operate in mediums bound by hierarchy, status, rules and others while women normally function with connectivity and closeness as paramount. For women, status and hierarchy are not key, and women are not predisposed to giving orders, but rather express preferences and suggestions which are likely accepted” (14).
According to John Warden, a retired Colonel, the military needed an organizational structure different from the current hierarchical order and women leaders tend to operate in a dissimilar manner placing more emphasis on connectivity and consensus (28).
So I asked my military husband and his leadership style and concluded that since the military is bound by hierarchy, and the fact that he is fourth in line of that hierarchy (within the submarine); he follows the rule of consistency. He said it is like raising our 5-year-old child, it is sometimes impossible for our child to be consistent in one goal in a day; and yet giving commands to an adult is also challenging. He needs to give them exactly what he wants them to accomplish in one day and how to do it in timely manner.
Meanwhile, in her book entitled “Bring Me Men & Women: Mandated Change at the U.S. Air Force Academy”, Judith Hicks Stiehm states leadership is crucial to military organizations. The Air Force Academy program in West Point, Annapolis, and Colorado Springs includes: much of the daily schedule includes activities to design to make cadets practice leadership such as intramurals and P.E. emphasize organizing and coaching almost as much as they do the improvement skills. In addition, they use officers almost exclusively as classroom teachers, and sometimes legitimately talked about career experiences (180). Lastly, the Air Force Academy and the commitment of the Air Training Officer Program “has strong belief in role models, in leadership by example, and in a total training environment” to get the cadets ready for the real combat (181).
Moran, Harris, Moran (2007) states that most leaders of organizations spend upwards 70% of their time communicating and it is imperative that we understand our world trade partners; and yet cross-cultural trade and communication pose special problems (40-41). They suggested that to increase the effectiveness across cultures “training must be the focus of the job, while education thought of with reference to the individual, and development reserved for organizational concerns (25).