Management and Organization Essay

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The management and organizational approaches that are used by various firms play a critical role in their performance. The adopted management approach is important due to the fact that it determines the efficiency with which activities are performed. The organizational structure of the firm on the other hand determines the delegation and application of authority. The organizational structure is developed by the management. The structure facilitates effective interaction among employees and helps in directing resources towards achieving the goals of the organization. The behavior of employees is also influenced by the management and organizational approach (Mullins 3). Thus a firm will only be successful if it adopts the best management and organizational approach. This paper will focus on analyzing two management approaches namely, scientific and bureaucratic theories of management.
Scientific Management Theory
This theory focuses on the analysis and synthesis of workflows. Its main objective is to improve efficiency within an organization. In order to achieve this objective, the theory proposes that scientific principles should be used in designing processes and managing workers. This theory was developed by “Fredrick Taylor in the 1880s and 1890s within the manufacturing industry” (Cook and Hunsacker 34). The theory was highly influential in the 1910s as the best management style. However, by 1920s it began to lose its popularity as new management ideas and concepts emerged. The modern organizational approaches and management styles borrow the following concepts from the scientific approach. The concepts include “logic, efficiency, mass production, rationalization, work ethic and standardization of best practi...

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...ty. Finally, the two approaches adopt a top-down system of making decisions. This means that commands or directives are given by the top officials while the junior employees are expected to obey. By contrasting the two approaches, the following differences can be identified. While the scientific approach focuses on improving labor productivity, the bureaucratic system puts more emphasis on administrative efficiency. The scientific approach encourages the introduction of incentive schemes in order to motivate workers. The bureaucratic approach on the other hand places emphasis on the rights of the workers in order to motivate the employees. Finally, the bureaucratic approach considers employment as a life-long career. The scientific approach on the other hand leads to job loses as “knowledge is transferred from workers to workers and from worker to tools” (Dean 29)

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