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Informative Essay: Plagues

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Infectious diseases also called as communicable diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi), can be spread directly or indirectly from one person to another.
Plague is a deadly infectious disease (ZOONOTIC DISEASE) caused by a gram negative bacterium Yersinia pestis. Plague is a disease that affects humans and other mammals. The bacteria are mainly found in rats and in the fleas that feed on them. Plague is transmitted to humans or other animals from rats and fleas bite that is carrying the plague bacterium, scratches from infected animals, inhalation of aerosols or consumption of food contaminated with the plague bacterium i.e. Yersinia pestis. In the past, plague destroyed entire civilization; no disease has impacted civilization as deeply as the plague did in Egypt, Europe, and Asia during Middle Ages. As many as 200 million people have died from this disease.
History of Plague Disease
Outbreaks of the plague are grouped into 3 plague pandemics:-
1. First plague pandemic known as PLAGGUE OF JUSTINIAN, from AD 541 to ~750. It spreads from Egypt to the Mediterranean and northwestern Europe. In Egypt, it destroyed 40% of the CONSTANTINOPLE (a city of Africa) and went on to destroy up to a 1/4th of the human population of the eastern Mediterranean. In Europe, the population drop by around 50% because of plague.
2. Second plague pandemic known as BLACK DEATH, from 1345 to 1840. It spreads from Central Asia to the Mediterranean and Europe and probably also to china. It is originated in or near china and spread along SILK ROAD. It may have reduced the world’s population from 450 million to 350 million. Because of this disease, China lost around ½ of its populati...


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...ath rate if the patient is left untreated within 1st 24 hours of 1st symptoms.
Prevention: - There is no plague vaccine is developed till now, scientists are working to develop the vaccine.
Some key points to prevent plague are: -
• By keeping the rat population under control: - By this, one can reduce the risk of getting the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes plague.
• Protect your pet from fleas by using insect repellent.
• By avoiding all the risk factors which are mentioned above.
• If exposed to fleas during plague outbreak, go to the doctor immediately.
• Try to avoid visiting plague endemic areas.
• Quick treatment should be taken if there are symptoms of lymph node pain.
• Wear gloves and proper cloths if handling the infected animals to prevent the direct contact.
• Don’t allow the animals like dogs or cats that roam free in endemic area.




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