Endosymbiosis and evolution of Organelles Essay

:: 11 Works Cited
Length: 1627 words (4.6 double-spaced pages)
Rating: Blue      
Open Document
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Endosymbiosis is important as it enables us to understand the evolution of eukaryotes from the common ancestor. This essay will focus on: the early evolution of our eukaryote ancestor during Precambrian period, plastids origin along the algae family due to second endosymbiosis; discuss the evidence that supports the theory, including further examples of endosymbiosis.
The theory, as discussed by Lynn Margulis, states that mitochondria originated from α-proteobacteria bacterium which was engulfed by the ancestral anaerobic eukaryotic cell, through endocytosis, and retained within the cytoplasm due to atmospheric oxygen increase. Prokaryote organism produced ATP, through oxidative phosphorylation, by receiving organic compounds from the eukaryote, causing the eukaryote to become dependent on prokaryote for ATP production and the prokaryote to become dependent on the eukaryote for other cellular functions. Consequently, both organisms evolved in symbiosis with each other and most the genes of a unicellular organism were transferred to the genome of the host, getting enclosed in the nucleus. Due to the advantageous relationship between the host and symbiont, prokaryote organism lost their ability to survive independently and, was reduced into mitochondria which were transmitted to future generation vertically (Debashish et al., 2003). The evolutionary history of plants involves at least two independent endosymbiotic events (as shown in Figure 1); because plastids such as chloroplast evolved when a primary endosymbiotic event caused photosynthetic cyanobacteria to be engulfed by some non-photosynthetic host cells (Dyall et al., 2004).
Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Glaucophyta are three clades, belonging to the group Archaeplas...

... middle of paper ...

...n, P.J., 2004. Ancient Invasions: From Endosymbionts to Organelles. Science, 304 (5668), pp. 253-257.
Lake, J.A., 2009. Evidence for an early prokaryotic endosymbiosis. Nature, 460, pp. 967-971.
McFadden, G. I., 2001.Primary and Secondary Endosymbiosis and the Origin of Plastids. Journal of Phycology, 37(6), pp. 951–959.
Rumpho, M.E., Worful, J.M., Lee J., Kannan, K., Tyler, M.S., Bhattacharya, D., Moustafa, A. and Manhart, J.R., 2008. Horizontal gene transfer of the algal nuclear gene psbO to the photosynthetic sea slug Elysia chlorotica. PNAS, 105(46), pp. 17867-17871.
Smith, A.M., Coupland, G., Dolan, L., Harberd, N., Jones, J., Martin, C., Sablowski, R. and Amey, A., 2010. Plant biology. New York: Garland Science; Taylor & Francis distributor.
Tomitani, A., 2006. Origin and early evolution of chloroplasts. Paleontological Research, 10 (4), pp. 283-297.

Click the button above to view the complete essay, speech, term paper, or research paper

This essay is 100% guaranteed.

Title Length Color Rating  
Endosymbiosis Essay - Endosymbiosis Endosymbiosis is the theory that eukaryotic cells were formed when a prokaryotic cell ingested some aerobic bacteria. The first step of the evolution of a eukaryotic cell is the infolding of the cellular membrane. This process takes place when the plasma membrane folds inwards and develops an envelope around a smaller prokaryotic cell. Once the smaller cell is engulfed, it becomes dependent upon its host cell. It relies on the host cell for organic molecules and inorganic compounds....   [tags: Biology Biological Papers]
:: 3 Works Cited
1041 words
(3 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Essay about Biology: The Endosymbiotic Theory - ... A cell’s plasma membrane to come together and joins to combine the material inside and then an intracellular vesicle is then formed. The origin of Eukaryotes is still Under Investigation but the most popular theories involves a symbiotic relationship between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In 1883 this theory began with Andreas schimper. Schimper hypothesized that cells had an endosymbiotic nature. Konstantin Merezhkovsky proposed in 1905, the reason that the plastids were endosymbionts, suggesting that symbiosis is the force behind evolution....   [tags: lynn margulis, eukaryotes] 575 words
(1.6 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Essay on ATP and the Endosymbiotic Theory - ... Photosynthetic bacteria (like cyanobacteria) do not contain chloroplasts, but more so act like free-living chloroplasts in some ways (Hardin et al., 2012). The thylakoids of cyanobacteria house the photosynthetic electron transport chain, as well as most of the respiratory electron transport complexes. Thylakoid membrane pairs separate a lumenal space and electron transport results in proton translocation across the membrane and into the lumen; the resultant proton motive force (pmf) is used for ATP synthesis (Mullineaux, 2014)....   [tags: mitochondria, chloroplasts, evolution]
:: 8 Works Cited
818 words
(2.3 pages)
Better Essays [preview]
The Idea of Endosymbiotic Organisms Essay - Many theories have surrounded the concept of evolution and how organisms have developed and evolved. Darwin, known as the founder of evolution, was documented as the first biologist to propose how evolution and genetic variation occurred in different organisms. Darwin’s theory of evolution focuses on the competing relationships among the same species; which in this theory, is the cause of genetic variation ultimately resulting in evolution. Furthermore, this means, that the competition among organisms result in genetic diversity, causing the development of all different types of life forms....   [tags: evolution, charles darwin, genetic variation] 593 words
(1.7 pages)
Good Essays [preview]
Issues of Tempo and Mode in Evolution Essay - There are many ways to explain how Earth and everything else came to be. Such as, Uniformitarianism, Catastrophism, Gradualism, and Punctuated Equilibrium. Generally, Uniformitarianism and Catastrophism are grouped together while Punctuated Equilibrium and Gradualism are grouped together separately from Uniformitarianism and Catastrophism. Gradualism and Punctuated Equilibrium are usually looked at through a biblical stand point rather than how Uniformitarianism and Catastrophism are looked at from the opposite view....   [tags: Evolution]
:: 3 Works Cited
615 words
(1.8 pages)
Better Essays [preview]
Essay about Proof of the Existence of Evolution - Since the publishing of Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species, where the theory of evolution has arisen from, people have debated Creationism versus Evolution. Through supporting facts and statements the theory of evolution will be defended as being more than just a theory, and proven as fact. Evolution as a fact is reinforced through; scientific studies on DNA, genetics and its mutilation, the Fossil Record and the change in earlier species that has been found, and finally the distribution of related species of animals over a broad geographical range....   [tags: evolution] 625 words
(1.8 pages)
Better Essays [preview]
Theory of Evolution Essay - Man could not evolve to any other state, because he was made in the ultimate state. He was made in the image and likeness of the Father so there was no need for evolution; hence, there was no sign of evolution from the beginning. Since sin came into the world, man has been deceived into thinking there is evolution. We are not talking about the theory of evolution that says man started from an amoeba or as an ape and eventually began to walk upright; not that evolution, but evolution in the sense of development....   [tags: Evolution] 1355 words
(3.9 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Primates and Evolution Essay - What makes a primate a primate. A primate is defined by its many incredible features. A primate is a mammal that has certain characteristics such as: flexible fingers and toes, opposable thumbs, flatter face than other mammals, eyes that face forward and spaced close together, large and complex cerebrum, and social animals. What makes a primate a primate is its characteristics. Some of the physical features primates are identified by is their teeth, snouts, eyes, ears, arms, legs, fingers, and toes....   [tags: Evolution] 687 words
(2 pages)
Better Essays [preview]
Creation vs. Evolution Essay - The purpose of this essay is not to prove “Darwinian” evolution, as the writer would be performing a feat already done by others, but to examine a certain track of thought amongst Creation proponents. Specifically their noting certain improbabilities of evolution's ability to “design.” I'll evade defining the individual concepts because they've all been described before, and far better than I could manage, although I'll point out that micro/macro evolution distinction is largely Creationist lingo, as is the “kind” terminology....   [tags: Evolution] 1386 words
(4 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Essay on Cell Organelles - The studies of Robert Hooke 1665 into a plant material would allow the determination of a pore like regular structure surrounded by a wall of which he called ‘cells’ this in itself unbeknownst to him, was the discovery of the fundamental unit of all living things. In 1838 a botanist called Schleiden derived the theory ‘The basic unit of structure and function of all living organisms is the cell.’ Over 150 years later this can be regarded as one of the most familiar and important facts within the biological fields....   [tags: essays research papers] 1709 words
(4.9 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]