Effect of trans fatty acids intake on blood lipid profile

:: 14 Works Cited
Length: 2710 words (7.7 double-spaced pages)
Rating: Excellent
Open Document
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Text Preview

More ↓

Continue reading...

Open Document

Introduction
Transfatty acids (TFA) may be described as polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids holding non-coupled carbon-carbon double bonds in the trans form, disrupted by at least one methylene group(1).
These trans fatty acids are formed by a process called hydrogenation to produce fats that have the firmness and plasticity desired by food manufacturers and consumers(2).
Trans fats are gaining popularity in industrial sector owing to its low cost, potential to increase shelf life of products and contribute suitable features to the food(3).
The major dietary sources of transfatty acids are vegetable oil condensation, solid margarines, crackers, candies, cookies, snack foods, fried foods, baked foods, and other processed foods. It is also present naturally at relatively low levels in meat and dairy products about (1to8%) as a result of the fermentation process in the animal’s rumens(4).
Partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils is a common technological aid to food processing with few or no undesirable effects although it can alter the composition of fatty acids. Types of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in dietary fats have been shown to profoundly influence lipid metabolism and physiological function. In particular, linoleic acid (18:2, n-6, LA) and α-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3) are metabolized to highly unsaturated fatty acids which have distinct physiological functions (5).
The effect of trans fatty acids on the serum lipoprotein profile is at least as unfavorable as that of cholesterol-raising saturated fatty acids, because trans fatty acids not only raise low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels but also lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. Later studies, involving either partially hydrogenated fat as the source of trans fatty acids or specifically synthesized fat differing in only a single fatty acid, further demonstrate the blood cholesterol raising effects of trans fatty acids (6).
Tran’s fat produced from the natural and industrial sources have different effect on human health. Industrially produced trans-fats are more dangerous and perilous than those of naturally present in food. Tran’s fat behaves like saturated fats and is a leading cause of cardiovascular complications, cancer,diabetes, obesity, proinflammatory response and endothelial dysfunction(7).

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"Effect of trans fatty acids intake on blood lipid profile." 123HelpMe.com. 23 Sep 2017
    <http://www.123HelpMe.com/view.asp?id=257453>.
Title Length Color Rating  
The Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Essay - ... The article, Omega-3: ALA intakes enough for EPA/DPA levels for non-fish eaters written by Stephen Daniells states, “The [United States] Institute of Medicine recommends an ALA intake of 1.6 grams per day for men and 1.1 grams per day for women” (Schardt). The western diet is very popular with people who take ALA supplements and also ALA in their foods. The good thing about Alpha-linolenic acids is that when our body intakes them, small amounts of it convert into docosahexaenoic acids. Another major type of omega-3 fatty acid is eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is known as the “long chain” omega-3 acid....   [tags: types, supplements] 1467 words
(4.2 pages)
Research Papers [preview]
Essay on Anti-Obesity Effects of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids - Anti-obesity effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids Introduction In recent years, obesity has become a significant health problem in industrialized countries such as the United States. Obesity is strongly associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, and congestive heart failure. The World Health Organization has defined obesity as one of the top ten global health problems. High-fat diets containing large amounts of saturated fat and low amounts of unsaturated fat, may directly increase the prevalence of obesity (Li, 2008)....   [tags: Medical Research]
:: 33 Works Cited
1982 words
(5.7 pages)
Term Papers [preview]
Essay on Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids - More and more research studies are finding that getting enough Omega-3 fatty acids is critical to our health in many ways. Omega-3 fats are essential for the survival of the human body, but our bodies can't manufacture them on their own, so we need to get them from the foods we eat. Good dietary sources of Omega-3 fatty acids are fish and seafood, like salmon, tuna, sardines, halibut, herring, algae and krill, plus some plants and nut oils such as flaxseeds and flaxseed oil, canola oil, soybeans and soybean oil, pumpkin seeds and pumpkin seed oil, purslane, perilla seed oil, and walnuts and walnut oil....   [tags: Preventing Illness] 1219 words
(3.5 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Fatty Acids are Needed for Growth Essay - Fatty Acids are Needed for Growth The lipids of our central nervous system contain high proportions of arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6, AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3, DHA) which are the two most important polyunsaturated fatty acids in the brain. Levels of linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3) are low, usually less than 1% to 2% of total fatty acids (Innis, S78-79). Linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid are precursors to AA and DHA; they are elongated and desaturated to form AA and DHA (Clandinin, 27)....   [tags: Health Nutrition Papers]
:: 9 Works Cited
2260 words
(6.5 pages)
Term Papers [preview]
Essay on Omega 3 Fatty Acids And Heart Disease Prevention - Omega 3 Fatty Acids And Heart Disease Prevention As heart disease continues to be one of the leading causes of death for Americans each year, scientists and the society as a whole strive to find effective ways of preventing this sometimes stoppable killer. Every thirty-two seconds a person in the United States dies from cardiovascular disease. That is over 900,000 Americans die each year from this killer. Coronary heart disease is one of the diseases grouped with cerebrovascular disease and peripheral artery disease under the group heading, cardiovascular disease....   [tags: Health Medical Medicine Essays]
:: 13 Works Cited
3062 words
(8.7 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
low carb diet and athlete performance Essay - Low carbohydrate (carb) diets have been used as a weight loss treatment for many years. Recently low carbohydrate diets are being used with athletes as a performance enhancement method by changing training adaptations. This essay will examine the health risks and benefits of a low carb diet, as well as the effects of low carb diets on the endurance athlete in regards to their training and performance. There are many short term benefits of low carb diets. However there are also many long term risks that outweigh the benefits for the general population....   [tags: Fatty Acids, Healthy Cellular Growth]
:: 10 Works Cited
1824 words
(5.2 pages)
Term Papers [preview]
The Use of Artificial Trans Fat Essay - There is currently a controversy surrounding the labeling and use of artificial trans fatty acids in the United States food supply. The root of this debate lies in the health risks associated with these types of fats. Consumption of trans fats has been shown to increase LDL cholesterol levels and decrease HDL cholesterol levels, putting consumers at risk for developing heart disease and other chronic conditions [1]. Recommendations to limit trans fat intake have been published by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences and the Federal Government....   [tags: fatty acids, health risks]
:: 4 Works Cited
875 words
(2.5 pages)
Better Essays [preview]
Understanding Acids and Bases Essay - Part A: Background information: Acids and bases are currently used in many various ways in our society and it is very important in daily uses. To many industries, acids and bases are a common factor as it is used to make fertilizer, cleaning supplies, or even sources of food or medicines to provide an easy life style. Acid is a substance with particular chemical properties, acids reacts with certain metals to produce hydrogen gas, acids also reacts with carbonate and bicarbonates to produce carbon dioxide gas, it has a sour taste....   [tags: Acids vs Bases]
:: 4 Works Cited
3020 words
(8.6 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Effect of Acids and Bases Essay - Effect of Acids and Bases Experiments to Determine the Effect of Acids & Bases on Different Indicators and the pH of Common Cleaning Agents The aim of the first set of experiments is to find out and record the colour changes that are observed after a certain indicator is mixed with acids and bases to form a colour reaction. Once the selected indicator has been mixed with a acid that is both weak and strong and a base/alkali that is both weak and strong we are to record the colour and choose another indicator....   [tags: English Literature Essays] 847 words
(2.4 pages)
Good Essays [preview]
Neonatal Adrenoleukodystrophy Essay - Neonatal Adrenoleukodystrophy also known as (NALD) is an inborn error of peroxisome biogenesis. It is part of the Zellweger spectrum. ( Wikipedia, June 24, 2102). It has been linked with multiple genes (at least five) associated with peroxisome biogenesis, and has an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. (Wikipedia, June 12, 2012). Pathophysiology (NALD) is an inheritable disorder that affects the adrenal glands, the white matter of the brain and the testes.(“ Adrenoleukodystrophy: Overview, Causes,” August 1, 2007) It is passed down from parents to their children as an X-linked genetic trait....   [tags: fatty acids, gene mutation] 547 words
(1.6 pages)
Good Essays [preview]




Despite this concern, the National Academy of Sciences dietary recommendations have not recommended the elimination of trans fat from the diet. This is because trans fat is naturally present in many animal foods in trace quantities, and therefore its removal from ordinary diets might introduce undesirable side effects and nutritional imbalances if proper nutritional planning is not undertaken. The NAS has, therefore, "recommended that trans fatty acid consumption be as low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet". Like the NAS, the World Health Organization has tried to balance public health goals with a practical level of trans fat consumption, recommending in 2003 that trans fats be limited to less than 1% of overall energy intake (8).
Trans fat is gaining importance in scientific research due to increasing awareness regarding the health in recent years. Currently issued FDA pattern wants manufacturer to expose transfat on the food specifics label of dietary supplements and formal foods, However food industry still
uses hydrogenated vegetable fats with high trans contents for various food applications. (9).
So this study aim to find out the correlation between the consumption of diatery trans fatty acid and fasting lipid profile & body mass index (BMI) in different age groups.



















Aim of the study

The purpose of this study is to find out the correlation between the consumption of dietary trans fatty acid and fasting lipid profile & body mass index (BMI) in different age groups.

















Material & Methods
Type of the study:
Comparative study
Study participants and methods of selection:
This comparative study was conducted on 50 patients in different age groups to find out the correlation between the consumption of trans fatty acid and fasting lipid profile & body mass index (BMI) in patients with different age groups attending outpatient clinic in Alexandria and Elbehera.
Data collection instrument and procedures:
Predesigned questionnaire was used to collect information on gender, date of birth, mother and father education, family history of obesity, dietary pattern and physical activity levels.
Anthropometric assessment:
Patient’s height and weight was recorded by standard calibrated standiometer. Weight in kg and height in cm were measured to the nearest 0.1 kg and 0.1 cm respectively . Bb ody mass index was calculated according to the following formula : BMI= Weight (kg)/ Height (meter)2
BMI was calculated and categorized into these groups: underweight (<18.5 kg/m2); normal (24,9-18.5 kg/m2); overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2) and obesity grade 1 (30 -34.9kg/m2( ;obesity grade 2 (35-39.9kg/m2) ; obesity grade 3 (≥40 kg/m2) ( WHO, 2013).


Dietary assessment:
Food intake was assessed by 24 hours recall method to obtain accurate and detailed information about food consumed by studied participants on the day before the data collection and detail food frequency history about the use of Trans fats containing products was recorded on daily basis.
Laboratory assessment:
The fasting lipid profile was performed by overnight fasting of 12 hours for every participant and The values were recorded according to the standard values.
Statistical assessment:
All relevant data for each individual study subject was coded. The collected data were tabulated and analyzed statistically using SPSS software program version 16.
Descriptive statistics in the form of rates and frequencies was used to describe data in the form of tables and graphs whenever appropriate. Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables. Student’s t-test was used to compare parametric quantitative data. The accepted level of significance in the present study was 0.95, p value ≤ 0.05.
Ethical considerations:
An oral permission was taken from participants and they were reassured that gathered information will be confidential and will be used only for the purpose of the study. The persons who refused to be enrolled in the study was respected.

RESULTS

Table (1) Distribution of studied sample according to their dietary adequacy from units:

Nut. < 50% 50 <75% 75<100% > 100 > 120
VC 16 32 1 2 10 20 6 12 17 34
VB1 21 42 9 18 5 10 4 8 11 22
VB2 12 24 12 24 4 8 8 16 14 28
VO 21 42 12 42 7 14 4 8 6 12


About two third of the sample (64%) taking V.C below than their requirements while only (23 %) taking it more than 100% of their V.C requirements.

Table (2) Distribution of studied sample according to their dietary adequacy from electrolyte:

Nut. <50% 50<75% 75<100% >100 >120
NO % NO % NO % NO % NO %
Ca 23 46 11 22 10 20 1 2 5 10
Fe 41 82 1 2 2 4 1 2 5 10
Ph 9 18 3 6 9 18 8 16 21 42
Zn 4 8 1 2 6 12 10 20 29 58
Cu 20 40 19 38 4 8 1 2 6 12
Mg 17 34 17 34 9 18 5 10 2 4
Na 14 28 5 10 5 10 7 14 19 38
K 3 6 4 8 15 30 13 26 15 30

The table shows that most of the sample (88%) are taking Ca and iron below their requirements while only (12%) taking it more than 100% of their requirements, and nearly the same from Cu (86%) taking it below their requirements and only (24%) taking it more than 100% of their requirements.
On the other hand, looking at Zn intake only (22%) taking it below than their requirements and (78%) taking it more than their 100% of requirements.
While Na intake nearly half the sample (48%) take it below their requirements and (52%) more than 100% of their requirements and the same as for K (44%) take it below their requirements and (56%) take it more than 100% of their requirements.

Table (3) Distribution of Fat Intake as Revealed by Calculation Of the Food Frequency Table

Total Daily Weekly Monthly Total
<3times >3times
No % No % No % No % No %
1. French Fries 7 14.6 16 33.3 19 39.6 6 12.5 48 100
2. Fried Chicken 0 0.0 2 4.3 36 78.3 8 17.4 46 100
3. Fried Egg Plant 3 6.8 9 20.5 20 45.5 12 27.3 44 100
4. Fried Fish 0 0.0 3 6.5 29 63.0 14 30.4 46 100
6. Fried Egg 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 100 9 100
7. Pies 0 0.0 2 18.5 6 54.5 3 27.3 11 100
8. Pizza 0 0.0 3 33.3 4 44.4 2 22.2 9 100
9. Biscuits 18 69.2 5 19.2 3 11.5 0 0.0 26 100
10. Cookies 3 75.0 0 0 1 25 0.0 0.0 4 100
11. Donuts 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 14.3 6 85.7 7 100
11. Kreme 0 0.0 1 56 9 50.0 8 44.4 18 100
12. Cake 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 7 43.8 9 56.3 16 100
13. Gateau 0 0.0 6 23.1 13 50 7 26.9 26 100
14. Ice Cream 1 100 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 100
15. Pop Corn 0 0 0 0 6 46.2 7 53.8 13 100
16. Hot Dog 0 0 1 6.7 5 33.3 9 60 15 100
17. Borger 4 8.2 31 63.3 11 22.4 3 6.1 46 100
18. Pudding 4 16 8 32 12 48 1 4 25 100
19. Chocolate 26 53.1 20 40.8 2 4.1 1 2 49 100
20. Tamya 2 7.4 14 51.9 10 37 1 3.7 27 100
21. Margarine 13 29.5 25 56.8 5 11.4 1 2.3 44 100
22.Margarine baladi 29 52.2 22 47.8 0 0 0 0 46 100
23. Oils 0 0 1 100 0 0 0 0 1 100


Most of the patients consuming fried food weakly as 78.3% eating fried chicken more than 3 times per week and ( 63%, 45.5%,39.6%) eating fried fish and fried eggplant and French fries retrospectively. While all patient eating fried egg eat it monthly.
Patients eating pastry (pizza and pies) 49.5% eating it weakly more than 3 times and 24.7% eating it monthly.
Patients eating biscuits and cookies (72,1%) eating it daily and only 19.2% eating it below than 3 times per week
Patients eating desserts (donuts, Kreme, gateau, cake) about 53% eat it monthly and popcorn eaten in 53,8% monthly
Processed meat like burger consumed weekly in 63.3% below than 3 times per week while hotdog monthly in 60%
Fats like margarine is used weekly in 68.2% while margarine baladi daily in 52.2% and weekly in 47.8% but oils is used 100% weakly.













Table (4) comparison between different age groups according to BMI


age Total
<18 y 18-29.9y >=30 y
BMI overweight Count 1 0 0 1
% within BMI 100.0% .0% .0% 100.0%
% within age 50.0% .0% .0% 2.0%
obese Count 1 14 34 49
% within BMI 2.0% 28.6% 69.4% 100.0%
% within age 50.0% 100.0% 100.0% 98.0%
Total Count 2 14 34 50
% within BMI 4.0% 28.0% 68.0% 100.0%
% within age 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
P < 0.05
All overweight patients was below 18 years while about 70 % of obese persons were > 30 years and only 29 % of obese were between 18 and 29.9 years that was statistically significant difference p value < 0.05.






Table (5) comparison between different age groups according to TC


age Total
<18 y 18-29.9y >=30 y
TC less than 170 Count 0 1 2 3
% within TC .0% 33.3% 66.7% 100.0%
% within age .0% 7.1% 5.9% 6.0%
170-199 Count 0 3 5 8
% within TC .0% 37.5% 62.5% 100.0%
% within cage .0% 21.4% 14.7% 16.0%
200 or greater Count 2 10 27 39
% within TC 5.1% 25.6% 69.2% 100.0%
% within age 100.0% 71.4% 79.4% 78.0%
Total Count 2 14 34 50
% within TC 4.0% 28.0% 68.0% 100.0%
% within age 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
P > 0.05
About 69 % of patients with TC > 200 was 30 years or more and another 5% of them were below 18 years, however there was no statistical significant difference (p value> 0.05).


Table (6) comparison between different age groups according to TG


age Total
<18 y 18-29.9y >=30 y
TG <=150 Count 2 9 17 28
% within TG 7.1% 32.1% 60.7% 100.0%
% within age 100.0% 64.3% 50.0% 56.0%
>150 Count 0 5 17 22
% within TG .0% 22.7% 77.3% 100.0%
% within age .0% 35.7% 50.0% 44.0%
Total Count 2 14 34 50
% within TG 4.0% 28.0% 68.0% 100.0%
% within age 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
% of Total 4.0% 28.0% 68.0% 100.0%
P > 0.05
most of patients (77%) with TG > 150 was 30 years or more and only 7% of patient with TG 150 them were below 18 years that was not statistically significant difference p value> 0.05.





Table (7) comparison between different age groups according to LDL


age Total
<18 y 18-29.9y >=30 y
LDL <110 Count 0 0 4 4
% within LDL .0% .0% 100.0% 100.0%
% within age .0% .0% 11.8% 8.2%
110-129 Count 0 2 4 6
% within LDL .0% 33.3% 66.7% 100.0%
% within age .0% 15.4% 11.8% 12.2%
>=130 Count 2 11 26 39
% within LDL 5.1% 28.2% 66.7% 100.0%
% within age 100.0% 84.6% 76.5% 79.6%
Total Count 2 13 34 49
% within LDL 4.1% 26.5% 69.4% 100.0%
% within age 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
% of Total 4.1% 26.5% 69.4% 100.0%
P > 0.05
most of patients (67%) with LDL > 130 was 30 years or more and only 5% of them were below 18 years that was not statistically significant difference p value> 0.05.

Table (8) comparison between different age groups according to HDL


age Total
<18 y 18-29.9y >=30 y
HDL <35 Count 1 1 5 7
% within HDL 14.3% 14.3% 71.4% 100.0%
% within age 50.0% 7.7% 14.7% 14.3%
>=35 Count 1 12 29 42
% within HDL 2.4% 28.6% 69.0% 100.0%
% within age 50.0% 92.3% 85.3% 85.7%
Total Count 2 13 34 49
% within HDL 4.1% 26.5% 69.4% 100.0%
% within age 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
% of Total 4.1% 26.5% 69.4% 100.0%
P > 0.05
most of patients (70%) with HDL <35 was 30 years or more and (14%), were in the age of 18-29.9years and the age below 18 years that was not statistically significant difference p value> 0.05.






Discussion

The few previous studies that specifically examined the effects of trans fatty acids on total serum cholesterol levels yielded conflicting results. Mattson et al.(10) did not find a hyper cholesterolemic effect of trans-C18:1 as compared with oleic acid. Studies by Vergroesen (11) and Gottenbos,(12) however, suggested that trans isomers of oleic acid have a cholesterol-raising effect, although it is less strong than that of saturated fatty acids. In the present study trans fatty acids were hypercholesterolemic effect but there is no significant result between different age groups

About 69 % of patients with TC > 200 was 30 years or more and another 5% of them were below 18 years ,in spite that there was not statistically significant difference (p value> 0.05). This mean that 74% of patients with TC > 200 .

Most of patients (77%) with TG > 150 was 30 years or more and only 7% of patient with TG 150 them were below 18 years that was not statistically significant difference p value> 0.05. This means that about 84% of patients in this study with TG > 150 mg.

Both the trans-fatty-acid diet and the saturated-fat diet resulted in higher serum triglyceride levels, as compared with the oleic acid diet. Anderson et al( 13)
Mattson et al.(10) did not find a triglyceride-elevating effect of trans relative to cis monounsaturates.

Most of patients (67%) with LDL > 130 was 30 years or more and only 5% of them were below 18 years, there was not statistically significant difference (p value> 0.05). This means that about 72% of patients in this study with LDL > 130 mg.

most of patients (70%) with HDL <35 was 30 years or more and (14%) were in the age of 18-29.9years, and the age below 18 years . However there was no statistically significant difference (p value> 0.05). This means that about 84,14% of patients in this study with HDL <35 mg.

Ronald et al (2) showed the level of LDL cholesterol was higher, but the level of HDL cholesterol was lower, and as a result the ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol was even higher on the trans-fatty-acid diet than on the saturated-fat diet.

The hydrogenated oil did not decrease HDL cholesterol levels in other study (14 ) .
We do not know, however, whether the effect of trans fatty acids on the levels of HDL and LDL cholesterol is proportional to intake.











Conclusion

The effect of trans fatty acids on the serum lipoprotein profile is at least as unfavorable as that of the cholesterol-raising saturated fatty acids, because they not only raise LDL cholesterol levels but also lower HDL cholesterol levels in different age groups.
Recommendations











References

1. Kim BH, Lumor SE, Akoh CC. Trans-Free margarines prepared with canola oil/Palm stearin/Palm kernel oil-based structured lipids. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2008: 56:8195-8205
2. Ronald P. Mensink and Martijn B. Katan. Effect of Dietary trans Fatty Acids on High-Density and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Healthy Subjects. N Engl J Med 1990; 323:439-445
3. Muhammad Umair Sattar, Faqir Muhammad Anjum, Amir Shahzad and Rai Muhammad Amir. TRANS FAT INTAKE: A SILENT THREAT TO HUMAN HEALTH A REVIEW. Pakistan Journal of Food Sciences (2013);23(1): 33-36
4. Fatima Yousaf Ali. Trans fatty acid; a confounding risk factor in coronary heart disease. Professional Med J Jan-Feb 2013;20(1):035-040.
5. Kaku S, Ohkura K, Yunoki S, Nonaka M, Tachibana H, Sugano M, Yamada K: Dietary gamma-linolenic acid dose-dependently modifies fatty acid composition and immune parameters in rats. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2001, 65:205-10.
6. Yun-Young Cho, Eun-Young Kwon, Hye-Jin Kim, Seon-Min Jeon, Ki-Teak Lee and Myung-Sook Choi. Differential effect of corn oil-based low trans structured fat on the plasma and hepatic lipid profile in an atherogenic mouse model: comparison to hydrogenated trans fat. Lipids in Health and Disease 2011, 10:15
7. Chardigny JM, Malpuech-Burger C (2007). Impact of trans fatty acids on cardiovascular diseases. J. Food Chem. 19(4):198-202.
8. Food and nutrition board, institute of medicine of the national academies (2005). Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients). National Academies Press. p. 424.
9. Wilson E (2004). Trans fat update. Manuf. Confect. 84:73-78
10. Mattson FH, Grundy SM. Comparison of effects of dietary saturated, mono-unsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in man . J Lipid Res 1985; 26:194–202..
11. Vergroesen AJ. Dietary fat and cardiovascular disease: possible modes of action of linoleic acid . Proc Nutr Soc 1972; 31:323–9.
12. Vergroesen AJ, Gottenbos JJ. In: Vergroesen AJ, ed. The role of fats in human nutrition. New York: Academic Press, 1975:1–41.
13. Anderson JT, Grande F, Keys A. Hydrogenated fats in the diet and lipids in the serum of man . J Nutr 1961; 75:388–94.
14. Laine DC, Snodgrass CM, Dawson EA, Ener MA, Kuba K, Frantz ID Jr. Lightly hydrogenated soy oil versus other vegetable oils as a lipid-lowering dietary constituent . Am J Clin Nutr 1982; 35:683–90.






Return to 123HelpMe.com