Effect of Cascade on Some Biological Aspects of S. Littoralis Treated as 2nd Larval Instar

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Effect of Cascade on some biological aspects of S. littoralis treated as 2nd larval instar:
The data obtained in Table (1) showed that the corrected percentages of larval mortality had a positive relationship with the different concentrations of Cascade. The percentages of larval mortality were 30, 60, 80, 95 and 100 % at the Conc. of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ppm, respectively. The response was dose dependent (i.e. the higher concentration affected more larvae). On the other hand the data obtained in the same Table. indicated that there was an inverse relationship between the different concentrations of Cascade and pupation percentages, 70, 40, 20, 5 and 0.0 % at Conc. of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ppm, respectively, as compared with 100% in the control. While the percentages of pupal mortality was increased with the increase in concentrations. Also the percentages of the adult emergence were decreased with the increasing in concentrations as compared with control.
Total inhibitions of adult emergence were 36.25, 70, 91.25, 96.25 and 100 % at the Conc.of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ppm, respectively, as compared with 0.0% in the control. The response was dose dependent (i.e the higher concentration induce more inhibition).
The larval and pupal durations were increased with the increasing of concentrations as compared with control, (i.e. the higher concentration induce more prolongation in both larval and pupal durations), as indicated in Table (1).
The fecundity and fertility were decreased as a result of treatment with Cascade. This decrease was negatively correlated with the concentration. On the other hand, the oviposition deterrent index (O.D.I) and percentages of sterility were positively correlated with the...

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...velopment especially in relation to nutrition and egg maturation (Maysa 2008). Acid phosphatase has received considerable attention in development studies due to its association with histolysis. This latter process is appreciable at the metamorphic molts of holometabolous species to which S. littoralis belongs.
The present study showed that the activities of α-esterase and β-esterase were reduced significantly in treated larvae as compared with control, the results showed that the reduction in activity was positively correlated to increase in dose and time post treatments these results are in agreement with (Abdel-Hafez et al. 1993a ; Salem et al. 1995 ; Al-Elimi and Eid 1998 and Maysa 2008).
Inhibition of non specific esterases enzymes could be suggests the reduction in fecundity and fertility, and they could be playing a role in the metamorphic inhibition.

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