Biological Processes and Catalysts for the Process of Nitrogen Fixation Essay

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Nitrogen is one the most inert chemicals after the noble gases, which makes it a great environment for the performance of limited chemical reactions.8,9,14,15 There is no surprise that nitrogen is a great choice because of its high dissociation energy, high ionization energy, and the inability to access its highest vacant molecular orbitals.15 Molecular dinitrogen is a tightly wound nonpolar molecule in character with σ and π electrons.14 The inertness of molecular dinitrogen makes practicable activation a challenge for chemists, but nature can do this process easily.10,14 Nitrogen is not only an important element in the area scientific research, but biological processes also have a much desired need and use for nitrogen.15
Biological systems use nitrogen for their own life support processes and because nitrogen is the controlling factor in protein synthesis. Reduced nitrogen in the biosphere is required in order to perform the needed protein synthesis.8,9,15 The term of nitrogen fixation is no longer solely limited to biological systems and can now be defined more generally as the reduction of molecular dinitrogen to ammonia.15 Nitrogen fixation in organisms began to appear late in evolutionary development because it was thought that the earth had possessed ammonia as a main aspect and component in the atmosphere.1,15 Once the natural occurring supply had diminished and sufficient nitrogen appeared, the systems were required to evolve and adapt in order to continue getting the needed ammonia for survival.1,8,9,15 Reduction of dinitrogen is a key reaction in nature because nitrogen is an important element, but molecular dinitrogen alone is in an inaccessible form for most living organisms to use practically.11 Nitrog...

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... Sivasankar, C.; Baskaran, S.; Tamizmani, M.; Ramakrishna, K. Lessons learned and lessons to be learned for developing homogeneous transition metal complexes catalyzed reduction of N2 to ammonia. Journal of Organometallic Chemistry 2014, 752, 44-58.
(17) Szigethy, G.; Heyduk, A. F. Steric and Electronic Consequences of Flexibility in a Tetradentate Redox-Active Ligand: Ti(IV) and Zr(IV) Complexes. Inorg. Chem. 2011, 50, 125-135.
(18) Tsvetkov, N. P.; Chen, C.; Andino, J. G.; Lord, R. L.; Pink, M.; Buell, R. W.; Caulton, K. G. Synthesis and Oxidative Reactivity of 2,2 '-Pyridylpyrrolide Complexes of Ni(II). Inorg. Chem. 2013, 52, 9511-9521.
(19) Van Tamelen, E. E.; Fechter, R. B.; Schneller, S. W.; Boche, G.; Greeley, R. H.; Akermark, B. Titanium(II) in the fixation-reduction of molecular nitrogen under mild conditions. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1969, 91, 1551-1552.

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