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Essay about Affirmative Action and Higher Education Admissions

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Introduction
Known as one of the biggest obstacles in higher education to date would arguably be the use of affirmative action within the higher education admission process for both private and public institutions (Kaplin & Lee, 2014; Wang & Shulruf, 2012). The focus of current research is an attempt to either justify or deny the use of affirmative action within current practices through various higher education institutions, and though any one person could potentially be swayed to side with the rationale to maintain its use or disregard, the facts are quite clear that the future of this practice is unclear. Therefore, this essay will present current research in an attempt to determine if affirmative action should continue to be used within college admission decisions.
What is Affirmative Action?
Signed in an executive order by President John F. Kennedy in 1961, the Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity was created to ensure that hiring and employment practices are free of racial bias. Three years later, President Lyndon Johnson presented the Civil Rights Act in 1964 prohibiting discrimination of all kinds based on race, color, religion, or national origin (Wang & Shulruf, 2012). Later that same year, President Johnson gave a commencement speech attempting to give an ethical response to the losses both materially and mentally to the African-Americans in slavery in the United States (Chace, 2011). Within the later years of the 1960s, higher education institution administrators, in an effort to boost under-represented groups of minorities, introduced the affirmative action concept into the admissions processes (Wang & Shulruf, 2012).
What has been the effect of these monumental milestones for minorities and under-repre...


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...& Hart, M. (2013). Considering class: College access and diversity. Harvard Law & Policy Review, 7(2), 367–403.

Hinrichs, P. (n.d.). The effects of affirmative action bans on college enrollment, educational attainment, and the demographic composition of universities. Review of Economics & Statistics, 94(3), 712–722.

Howell, J. (2010). Assessing the impact of eliminating affirmative action in higher education. Journal of Labor Economics, 28(1), 113–166.

Kaplin, W., & Lee, B. (2014). The law of higher education. 5th ed. San Francisco, CA. Jossey-Bass.

Tanabe, C. (2009). From the courtroom to the voting booth: Defending affirmative action in higher education. Philosophy of Education Yearbook, 291–300.

Wang, G., & Shulruf, B. (2012). Admission model and equity in higher education. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 22(1), 111–117. doi:10.1007/s40299-012-0002-8



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